championing the brave new world
of computer graphic imagery enhanced film art
in the twilit and allegorical literary art
of William Gibson
by Gary W. Wright
While from a distance the tech noir literary art of William Ford Gibson seemed unusually novel and separate from that which came before, on closer inspection his fiction proved to be as implicitly allegorical as always. In fact, Gibson often implied an interest in allegorically addressing and roasting New Hollywood film artists in his fiction. This implicit interest in New Hollywood took on greater significance after the fatal helicopter crash that killed child extras Renee Chen and Myca Le and actor/director/writer Vic Morrow around 2:20 am in the early morning hours of July 23, 1982 on the George Folsey jr. produced John Landis set of the Frank Marshall executive produced and Kathleen Kennedy associate produced allegorical Landis, Spielberg, Joe Dante and George Miller film, TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE (1983).
Indeed, Gibson implicitly became one of the most significant literary artists of the subsequent dread allegorical Zone Wars, along with Screamin’ Stephen King and Salman Rushdie. However, unlike King and Rushdie, Gibson implicitly used his fiction and screenplays to promote the use of the ‘consensual hallucination’ of computer generated imagery (CGI) in film art so that it would replace dangerous on set special effects and prevent more fatal disasters. Indeed, Gibson’s twilit and allegorical short stories and novels were written in such a way that the only way to realize them on film was with CGI enhancement. Thus, it was fitting that an interest in digital enhancement and an implicit interest in film art were seen in Gibson’s first allegorical and CGI enhanced tech noir short story, ‘Fragments Of A Hologram Rose’ (1977).
‘Roughly a quarter of all ASP users are unable to comfortably assimilate the subjective body picture of the opposite sex.’
For the story revolved around a digital technology called apparent sensory perception (ASP) that recorded and played back individual sensory perceptions. Curiously, this new technology was implicitly linked to literary art, for the story’s male protagonist, Parker, spent most of the story alone with his glum thoughts in his apartment unwilling to use the ASP cassette tape left by his ex-girlfriend, Angela, because he was not comfortable in a female sensory experience. Thus, Gibson implicitly worried that he would not succeed as a literary artist as he would not be able to accurately convey the inner world or point of view (POV) of female characters in his fiction. In fact, given that the name of Angela evoked Los Angeles, Gibson implicitly worried that he would not be able to create successful screenplays as well as narrative art, novels, novellas and short stories.
Indeed, Parker had a dull job as a continuity writer for an ASP station, openly linking him to writing and affirming that the story implicitly symbolized Gibson’s fear that he would never be able to break free from formulaic genre fiction and teleplays and write truly original and vital literary art and screenplays with fully fleshed female characters that might inspire the creation of CGI enhanced film art. This implication was affirmed by the name of Parker, for it had six letters and two three letter syllables like Gibson, implicitly affirming that Gibson shared the fears of Parker. At any rate, luckily for Gibson, his fears were groundless, for ‘Fragments Of A Hologram Rose’ was a fine allegorical story that boded well for his future. Curiously, many of the hallmarks of the tech noir fiction of Gibson-such as chrome, coffee, drugs, neon and new digital technology that transformed the world and its culture-were present. The story was also prescient, with the ability of ASP to duplicate sensory experience anticipating the ability of CGI to duplicate reality. Indeed, the bleak but technologically advanced world of Gibson was so well established, it was no surprise that Gibson would implicitly and sarcastically blast George Lucas and the Flash Gordon-style sly fi design seen throughout the STAR WARS Classic Trilogy and in the allegorical Mike Hodges film, FLASH GORDON (1980), a campy allegorical roast of that trilogy, in his second published, allegorical and CGI enhanced tech noir short story, ‘The Gernsback Continuum’ (1981).
‘During the high point of the Downes age,
they put Ming the Merciless in charge
of designing California gas stations.’
For the story revolved around an anonymous American photographer who was hired by British ‘pop-art’ historian Dialta Downes of the London publisher Barris-Watford to travel the U.S. photographing ‘…the odds and ends of “futuristic” Thirties and Forties architecture you pass daily in American cities without noticing; the movie marquees ribbed to radiate some mysterious energy, the dime stores faced with fluted aluminum, the chrome-tube chairs gathering dust in the lobbies of transient hotels’ (Burning Chrome, pp. 25-6) for a ‘…big trendy ‘trade’ paperback’, allowing Gibson to implicitly mock this bright, shiny and hopeful ‘futuristic’ architecture and scientifiction that inspired Lucas and Hodges. Nothing summed up this implicitly dual purpose more than the gas stations that the photographer came across in California, whose look Gibson sarcastically noted was due to the fact that
‘…favoring the architecture of his native
Mongo, (Ming the Merciless) cruised up and down
the coast erecting raygun emplacements in white
stucco. Lots of them featured superfluous central
towers ringed with those strange radiator flanges
that were a signature motif of the style, and made
them look as though they might generate potent
bursts of raw technological enthusiasm, if you could
only find the switch that turned them on
(Burning Chrome, p. 28).
As this potent burst evoked the planet annihilating death ray that poured out of the Death Star when its switches were turned on in the allegorical, CGI enhanced and implicitly Spielberg roasting Lucas film, STAR WARS EPISODE IV: A NEW HOPE (1977), affirmed did Gibson his implicit Lucas roasting allegorical intent in ‘The Gernsbach Continuum’. And his implicit Hodges roasting intent, as the implicitly John Huston linked Ming the Merciless was played by Max Von Sydow in FLASH GORDON.
This implicit interest in roasting Hodges and Lucas was reaffirmed by a vision of a bright and shining city of the future with soaring spires that shocked the anonymous photographer protagonist at the end of his travels around the United States and that evoked Cloud City in the allegorical, Lucas executive produced, CGI enhanced and implicitly Spielberg roasting Irv Kershner film, STAR WARS EPISODE V: THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK (1980). Intriguingly, however, while the photographer wanted to dismiss this gleaming futuropolis with its soaring spires so huge that ‘…you could hide the Empire State Building in the smallest of those towers’ (Burning Chrome, 33), its lofty crystal roads that linked the towers and its darting air traffic, the futuristic visions of the hopeful Thirties and Forties refused to release him from their grip. Thus, Gibson implicitly chided Hodges and Lucas for causing the world to be caught up in the hopeful retro grip of FLASH GORDON and the STAR WARS Classic Trilogy, given that the hopes and dreams of the rebel Sixties and Skyrocking Seventies were being swept away by the rising cost of living and unemployment of the edgy Eighties like the hopeful futuristic dreams of the Twenties and Thirties were swept away by the horrifying nightmare of the Second World War and ‘…the rockets on the covers of the Gernsback pulps (that) had fallen on London in the dead of night, screaming’ (Burning Chrome, 28). Indeed, the story ended with the photographer on the run from his Flash Gordon sly fi visions in San Francisco, the hometown of Lucas, implicitly affirming that Lucas was being roasted in ‘The Gernsback Continuum’.
Even more ominously, ‘The Gernsback Continuum’ also ended with the photographer wondering if his heady and presciently CGI enhanced visions of the future meant that he had lost his marbles and ‘…checked out for a protracted season in the Twilight Zone’ (Burning Chrome, 35). Thus, Gibson ominously and presciently anticipated that audiences and film art would soon be broken from the cloying and irritating grip of the STAR WARS Classic Trilogy by the helicopter falling on Chen, Le and Morrow in the dead of night, screaming, in another eerie memory of the twilit future that haunted fantastic fiction and film before the TZ disaster. This creative, idiosyncratic and prescient style, commitment to succeeding as a literary artist and implicit interest in film art in general and roasting Lucas in particular returned that year along with the dark and decayed future of ‘Fragments Of A Hologram Rose’ in the allegorical and CGI enhanced tech noir short story, ‘Johnny Mnemonic’ (1981).
‘I decided to stay up here.
When I looked out across the Killing Floor,
before he came, I saw how hollow I was.
And I knew I was sick of being a bucket.’
Curiously, the short story began with the eponymous and implicitly Spielberg linked Johnny Mnemonic meeting the unsavoury and implicitly Alfred Hitchcock linked Ralfi Face at 2300 hours in a bar called the Drome in a crime ridden area called Nighttown in Japan. This meeting time again ominously anticipated the July 23, 1982 date of the TZ disaster in a Gibson short story, giving a twilit ambience to the tale of the embattled escape of Mnemonic and his mysterious and surgically altered guardian angel with the Hollywood evoking name, Molly Millions, from the sinister and deadly clutches of Face and a lone and implicitly Lucas linked razorwire thumbed assassin who sliced Face into a twilit trio of pieces and the implicitly Lucasfilm linked and Japan based worldwide crime organization, the yakuza, that sent the assassin after Mnemonic. Indeed, the fact that the story ended with the assassin losing his razorwire thumbed left hand and falling to his doom from the Killing Floor high atop Nighttown after losing a fight with Molly affirmed his implicit link to Lucas. For the assassin’s death reminded us that earnest young Jedi Knight, Luke Skywalker-played by Mark Hamill-lost his right hand and fell to his doom in Cloud City at the end of STAR WARS EPISODE V: THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK.
Significantly, after Molly beat the yakuza assassin, Mnemonic decided to stop acting as a human carrier for classified information for corporate clients worried that their data would be hacked by rivals if transmitted via computer, and to live up in the sky with the Lost Boy and Girl Lo-Tek rebels whose territory included the Killing Floor and start filling his head with only his own data, dreams and memories. This decision reaffirmed the implication that Gibson was addressing Spielberg in ‘Johnny Mnemonic’, reminding us that Spielberg worked for executive producer Lucas that year on the eerily twilit, allegorical and implicitly Landis addressing film, RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK (1981), and implying that Gibson was urging Spielberg to never work for Lucas or anyone else again and to create only his own film art from now on. Indeed, a dolphin named Jones who was enhanced with a superconducting quantum interference detector (SQUID) and who helped out Johnny and Molly reaffirmed the implicit interest in that film, for the name of Jones evoked Professor Henry ‘Indiana’ Jones jr.-played by Harrison Ford-in RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK.
Of course, the victory of Mnemonic and Millions was not just an implicit victory for Spielberg and his film art, but also an important victory for indie literary and film artists like Gibson. For the determined new beginning for Mnemonic reminded us that all artists, including literary artists like Gibson, had to stop imitating and regurgitating their favourite artists at some point and start creating their own art-with the help of a muse as calm, collected, determined, fearless, strong and supportive as Molly Millions-if they hoped to succeed and be respected as a distinct artist in their own right and survive the critical Killing Floor. Thus, Gibson also implied that he was reaffirming his determination to do just that with his own allegorical literary art in ‘Johnny Mnemonic’.
Indeed, the fact that Molly Millions was Gibson’s boldest and strongest female character yet and that she did not abandon Johnny in the end like Angela abandoned Parker in ‘Fragments Of A Hologram Rose’ implicitly affirmed that Gibson was now more confident in his craft and in his ability to accurately create the female experience in his literary art. ‘Johnny Mnemonic’ also reaffirmed that Gibson had already achieved a distinct tech noir style, an iconoclastic and idiosyncratic vision which added biodigital technology, genetic engineering, the rivalry between the indie and implicitly Lucasfilm linked yakuza group the Sons of the Neon Chrysanthemum and implicitly Hollywood film studio linked global corporations like Ono-Sendai to the idiosyncratic mix already present in ‘Fragments Of A Hologram Rose’. The creative powers of Gibson were also beginning to flow so freely that he began to predict more than just the TZ disaster in his writing. For Gibson correctly foresaw ‘…an (Orwellian) information economy…(where) it’s impossible to move, to live, to operate at any level without leaving traces, bits, seemingly meaningless fragments of information. Information that can be retrieved, amplified’ (Burning Chrome, p. 17). An amplification of creative literary confidence that continued when Gibson implicitly wrapped up his Lucas Trilogy in tech noir style in his third allegorical and CGI enhanced tech noir short story of the Last Good Year before the TZ disaster, ‘Hinterlands’ (1981).
‘Some people just aren’t taken,
and nobody knows why.’
Intriguingly, the short story revolved around the desperate and often doomed attempt of a beleaguered American ‘surrogate’ named Toby Halpert on a space station located between Earth and Mars to welcome back and use drugs to soothe deranged and suicidal astronauts and cosmonauts returning to the Solar System after mindblowing trips across the galaxy via a hyperspace portal called the Highway located near the space station. The sympathetic and soothing surrogates were created by the United Nations after most of the first overwhelmed Highway returnees committed suicide upon return to the solar system, including Russian cosmonaut Lieutenant-Colonel Olga Tovyevski, the first surprised Highway traveller to unsuspectingly set off the hyperspace portal while on a routine solo mission to a Soviet space station in orbit around Mars. Significantly, as humanity’s obsession with carefully recreating the conditions that led Lt.-Col. Tovyevski to set off the hyperspace portal so as to send more astronauts and cosmonauts blasting down the Highway evoked the unimaginative obsession that the Hollywood film studios had at the time with creating a STAR WARS clone that would replicate the success of STAR WARS EPISODE IV: A NEW HOPE, the implication was that Gibson was roasting that desperate and unimaginative Hollywood obsession in ‘Hinterlands’ and perhaps even roasting the agents, handlers, managers and groupies that flocked to film artists like Lucas and supplied them with booze, drugs and sex to help them cope with the insanity of life when they hit the big time.
Indeed, the names of Lt.-Col. Olga Tovyevski affirmed the implication, as her names evoked Leia Organna-played by Carrie Fisher-and the toys promoted by the STAR WARS Classic Trilogy. The fact that an East German named Kurtz was the first to enter Lt.-Col. Tovyevski’s Alyut 6 space ship when it returned from hyperspace reaffirmed the implicit allegorical intent of ‘Hinterlands’, for his surname reminded us that Gary Kurtz produced STAR WARS EPISODE IV: A NEW HOPE and STAR WARS EPISODE V: THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK. Another returnee named ‘Little Jorge’ also affirmed the implicit interest in Lucas. Of course, the elusive hyperspace portal also evoked the hyperspace portal that could be opened by the second and larger Tycho Magnetic Anomaly monolith (TMA-2) discovered in orbit around Jupiter at the end of the allegorical Stanley Kubrick film, 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), implying that Gibson was also addressing that Lucas inspiring film in ‘Hinterlands’. The Stanley Kubrick cadenced name of Toby Halpert and the ‘Hal-’ at the beginning of his surname that evoked the Heuristic Algorithm 9000 (HAL-9000) computer in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY affirmed the implicit interest in Kubrick in ‘Hinterlands’.
The implication that the story was addressing film art and film artists was reaffirmed by the many open allusions to film art in general and to that of Walt Disney in particular in the story. The fact that most of the returnees-like the Leni Riefenstahl evoking Leni Hofmannstahl-killed themselves or went mad soon after they returned also implied that Gibson believed that the attempt to recreate the success of the STAR WARS Classic Trilogy was not just a crazy and uncreative waste of time but dangerous. Fittingly, given that Gibson played an implicitly significant role in the dread allegorical Zone Wars, he was also linked forever to the twilit and disastrous July of 1982 with the publication of his allegorical and CGI enhanced tech noir short story, ‘Burning Chrome’ (1982).
‘I’ve got a one-way ticket to Hollywood.’
Curiously, the story alluded to Kubrick and his film art-particularly the Zeiss Ikon cornea implants, which evoked the sensitive Zeiss film lenses that allowed Kubrick to create his allegorical and implicitly Landis roasting film, BARRY LYNDON (1975), with candle and natural light. Thus, the implication was that the successful cracking of the personal internet database of an Evil woman named Chrome-perhaps implicitly linked to Lucas, given the implicitly anti-Lucas spirit of the three stories of ’81-and the stealing of all her illicit money by two of the world’s first computer hackers, the implicitly Kubrick linked console cowboy Bobby Quine and his traumatized and perhaps Arthur C. Clarke linked one-armed war veteran friend, Automatic Jack, in an area of the eastern United States called the Sprawl implicitly symbolized Kubrick returning to the Temple Theatre and beating another film artist-perhaps Lucas-with a successful film. Fittingly, ‘Burning Chrome’ also evoked Gibson’s success in cracking the established author ranks with the inspiration of writers like William S. Burroughs and Philip K. Dick whether the establishment-including the British Columbia literary establishment-liked it or not, given the ‘B.C’ initials of ‘Burning Chrome’.
Significantly, ‘Burning Chrome’ was also the first allegorical Gibson short story to anticipate the consensual hallucination of CGI enhanced film art to prevent future film set disasters after 1982. For part of the story’s action took place in a colourful and animated internet cyberspace matrix which was ‘…an abstract representation of the relationships between data systems…(filled with)…bright geometries representing the corporate data…towers and fields (which were) ranged in the colorless nonspace of the simulation matrix, the electronic consensus-hallucination that facilitates the handling and exchange of massive quantities of data’ (Burning Chrome, pp.180-1). This implicit commitment to CGI enhancement began on the first page of the story, when ‘…a silver tide of phosphenes boiled across (Automatic Jack’s) field of vision as the matrix began to unfold in (his) head, a 3-D chessboard, infinite and perfectly transparent’ (Burning Chrome, p. 179). Curiously, this implicit interest in developing CGI to prevent film set disasters was presciently anticipated by the fact that it took seven minutes and twenty-four seconds to burn through the Intrusion Countermeasures Electronics (ICE) security protecting the database of Chrome at the end of the story, for 7:24 already implied the post-TZ disaster hope of Gibson that film art would leave behind the 723 disaster with the help of CGI. But not without a fight, as the beautiful and beguiling Rikki dumped both Bobby and Jack and fled to Chiba City in Japan at the end of the story, an abandonment that presciently foretold the abandonment of the Temple Theatre audiences outraged by the TZ disaster and the digitally enhanced battle to bring them back.
Thus, it was fitting that the year of the publication of ‘Burning Chrome’ was the year of the release of the twilit and allegorical Nicholas Meyer film, STAR TREK II: THE WRATH OF KHAN (1982)-which exuberantly and literally celebrated the arrival of the brave new world of CGI enhanced film art with the creation of the CGI lunar world of Genesis-and the first feature length and allegorical CGI enhanced Steven Lisberger film, TRON (1982). Alas, 1982 was also the year of the TZ disaster, which took place only weeks after the release of TRON and the publication of ‘Burning Chrome’ in OMNI magazine in July of 1982. A shocking and fatal disaster that touched off the dread allegorical Zone Wars and increased interest in CGI enhancement so as to prevent more fatal disasters on film sets.
Curiously, the fatal and disastrous year of 1982 ended with the publication of the allegorical Clarke novel, 2010: Odyssey Two (1982), just in time to make a great Christmas present for sadolescent geeks such as myself. Fittingly, given that Gibson implicitly addressed 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY in ‘Hinterlands’, Clarke implicitly addressed Gibson in the form of Victor Millson in 2010: Odyssey Two. Thus, it was no surprise that Gibson implicitly addressed Clarke and the TZ disaster and revisited many elements from ‘Burning Chrome’ and ‘Johnny Mnemonic’ like the decayed but hi-tech future where paper books and money had been replaced by digital versions; the cyberspace matrix; Chiba City; the multinational and implicitly Hollywood studio linked corporate ‘zaibatsu’ Ono-Sendai; their nemesis, the implicitly Lucasfilm linked yakuza group the Sons of the Neon Chrysanthemum; simstim-simulated stimuli, the latest sensory perception recording technology that had replaced the ASP of ‘Fragments Of A Hologram Rose’ and may have just symbolized television, as its main star was Tally Isham-as well as an interest in watches to add to an interest in chrome, coffee, drugs and neon plus the Finn to boot when Gibson returned with his first twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced and Ozian themed novel, Neuromancer (1984).
‘He’d operated on an almost permanent adrenaline high,
a byproduct of youth and proficiency,
jacked into a custom cyberspace deck
the projected his disembodied consciousness
into the consensual hallucination that was the matrix.’
Indeed, the novel started with the implicitly Dorothy linked Molly Millions-now simply referred to as Molly, though she also referred to herself by the Gale Dorothy evoking name of Rose Kolodny-saving another troubled and implicitly Scarecrow linked young man with the Philip Kindred Dick cadenced name of Henry Dorsett Case from his underworld associates in Night City, the new name for the Nighttown area of Chiba City in Japan. However, instead of being implicitly linked to Spielberg like Mnemonic in ‘Johnny Mnemonic’, Case was implicitly linked to Landis by way of a twilit trio of two men and one woman that he had murdered while on the run in Night City. Another twilit trio of two men and one woman with the Myca Le evoking name of Linda Lee that died when Millions rescued Case reaffirmed his implicit link to Landis. Indeed, a pimp with the Twilight Zone evoking name of Lonny Zone who was met in a bar called the Chatsubo in Night City on the first page of the novel immediately implied Gibson’s interest in Landis and the TZ disaster.
Then it was back to the Sprawl, so that the Quine trained Case could burn the database of the Sense/Net corporation to help Molly and her Lo Tek evoking Panther Modern buddies steal some hardware containing the ROM digital ghost ‘construct’ of a legendary, recently deceased hacker named McCoy Pauley-his legendary status and recent death implicitly linking him to Lucas given that the equally legendary Lucas had just crashed and burned with the disappointing trimax of the Classic Trilogy, the allegorical, CGI enhanced, Lucas executive produced and implicitly Spielberg roasting allegorical Richard Marquand film, STAR WARS EPISODE VI: RETURN OF THE JEDI (1983). Soon Case and Millions were off to Freeside, a vacation satellite that orbited Earth that evoked the spinning Earth satellite and the Discovery I spaceship in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY and 2010: Odyssey Two, affirming that Gibson was implicitly addressing Clarke in Neuromancer.
Indeed, Case and Millions hunted down, confronted and killed a tall, old, wealthy and implicitly Clarke and Great Oz linked character named Ashpool during their time on Freeside, affirming the implicit Clarke roasting intent of Neuromancer. The name of Ashpool affirmed the implicit interest in Clarke, for his name evoked that of Frank Poole-played by Gary Lockwood-in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. The fondness of Ashpool and the rest of the cloned members of the Tessier-Ashpool clan for cryogenic respites also affirmed the implicit interest in Clarke in Neuromancer, for it evoked the cryogenic astronauts on the Discovery I in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY and the fact that 2010: Odyssey Two was a cloned sequel of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. The battling Artificial Intelligences (AIs) Neuromancer and Wintermute reaffirmed the implicit Clarke roasting intent of Neuromancer, for they recalled the two AIs HAL-9000 and SAL-9000 in 2010: Odyssey Two.
Significantly, while on Freeside, Case and Millions also triumphed over the implicitly Wicked Witch of the West linked 3Jane Tessier-Ashpool in the fateful and twilit 23rd chapter, implying a triumph over the TZ disaster and the ushering in of a brave new world of CGI enhanced fiction and film art. Indeed, the novel’s Coda conclusion in the twenty-fourth chapter and the return of Molly and the Skyrocking spirit of the Last Good Year to the literary art of Gibson affirmed his implicit hope that he could reboot film and literary art out of the twilight and into a sobered but sunlit and CGI enhanced new era with Neuromancer. The ease with which Case was able to enter the consciousness of Molly and share her experience of the world through a simulated stimulation ‘simstim’ hookup throughout the novel also implied that Gibson was now more confident that he could capture the female POV in his literary art. Curiously, however, this implicit interest in exorcising the TZ disaster and ushering in a whole new CGI enhanced era of art was put on hold that same July of 1984 in the allegorical and CGI enhanced tech noir short story, ‘New Rose Hotel’ (1984).
‘The blood of a zaibatsu is information,
The structure is independent
of the individual lives that comprise it.
Corporation as life form.’
Significantly, as the story saw a mysterious Eurasian woman named Sandii whose name and mixed heritage evoked the Fremen warrioress, Chani-played by Sean Young-and the sands of the desert world of Arrakis in the twilit and allegorical David Lynch film, DUNE (1984), Gibson implied that he was addressing Lynch in ‘New Rose Hotel’. Indeed, the Arrakeen evoking Moroccan city of Marrakech figured prominently in the short story, affirming the implication that Lynch was being addressed in ‘New Rose Hotel’. Thus, the fact that Sandii betrayed the short story’s unnamed but implicitly Lynch linked corporate headhunter narrator and his partner, Fox, and helped a callous corporate zaibatsu with the Los Angeles cadenced name of Maas Biolabs GmbH use a meningeal virus to kill Moenner and the Akira Kurosawa cadenced Hiroshi Yomiuri, two defectors from the zaibatsu with the Mexico cadenced name of Hosaka, and leave a third defector, Chedenne, with permanent brain damage, implied that Gibson believed that the Mexico created DUNE would not impress audiences but would kill the reputation of Lynch. Literally, as the short story ended with a vengeful Hosaka helicopter targeting its anonymous male protagonist for termination at a Tokyo coffin hotel.
For his part, W.P. Kinsella implicitly addressed Gibson in his ‘Burning Chrome’ evoking allegorical short story, ‘King Of The Street’, in his short story collection, The Alligator Report (1985). Indeed, Ginny, the drug addicted prostitute ‘girlfriend’ of the eponymous King of the downtown Eastside of Vancouver, not only had a first name that evoked that of Molly Millions, but also reminded us that Gibson was born in Conway, SC, but raised in Wytheville, Virginia, affirming the implicit Gibson addressing intent of ‘King Of The Street’. As for Gibson, corporate defectors implicitly linked to Hollywood film artists and genetic engineering firms like Maas Biolabs and Hosaka that were implicitly linked to the movie star creating Hollywood and Mexican studios both returned with an implicitly renewed commitment to exorcising the TZ disaster and ushering in a brave new era of CGI enhanced film art in what turned out to be the second tale in the Sprawl Trilogy, the twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced and Ozian themed novel, Count Zero (1986).
‘…You should pretend that we are talking two languages
at once. One of them, you already understand…
But at the same time, with the same words,
we are talking about other things.’
Indeed, the return of another and more elaborate corporate defection from Maas Biolabs to Hosaka that was not only foiled again by Maas but included a character named Lynch affirmed that Gibson was implicitly addressing Lynch again in the novel. Significantly, however, this time the Maas Biolabs defector who failed to make it to Hosaka, one Christopher Mitchell, was implicitly linked to David Cronenberg, implying that Gibson disapproved of Cronenberg abandoning Canadian indie film art to work with Hollywood on the twilit, allegorical and implicitly Lynch addressing film, THE DEAD ZONE (1983). The teenaged daughter of Mitchell reaffirmed that implication, for the implicitly Dorothy linked Angela ‘Angie’ Mitchell had been surgically transformed by her father into a superwoman straight out of the eerily prescient and allegorical Cronenberg film, SCANNERS (1980). The name of Angie Mitchell also affirmed her implicit link to Canadian artists, for it evoked that of Joni Mitchell.
In addition, Gibson implicitly addressed Kubrick again in the implicit form of the implicitly Tin Man linked Bobby ‘Count Zero’ Newmark and implicitly hoped that Kubrick would return to the Temple Theatre with a film that would free film art from the Twilight Zone and return harmony to audiences, film art, film artists and the Temple Theatre given that Newmark helped saved the day, in the end. Throw in a parallel quest by Marly Krushkhova to discover the identity of a mysterious artist who created boxes that evoked those of Eddie Cornell, and Gibson openly affirmed his commitment to higher art triumphing over the blockbuster film art of fortune and glory obsessed Hollywood zaibatsu gangsters. This implicit interest in exorcising the TZ disaster and saving film art returned along with an implicit interest in addressing Clarke again and his latest twilit and allegorical novel, 2061: odyssey three (1987), when Gibson wrapped up the Sprawl Trilogy in style in the twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced and Ozian themed novel, Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988).
‘I’m an indie.’
Indeed, the return of the implicitly Kubrick and Scarecrow linked Newmark, the implicitly Glinda linked Millions-under the nom de guerre of Sally Shears-and the ghosts of the implicitly Clarke and Great Oz linked Ashpool and the implicitly Wicked Witch of the West linked 3Jane Tessier-Ashpool affirmed the implication that Gibson was addressing Clarke again in the novel. Significantly, as Mona Lisa Overdrive ended with Newmark and his implicitly Cronenberg linked girlfriend Angela Mitchell-now an open symbol of film art as a world famous and Continuity AI assisted simstim star-dying in reality but leaving behind their mortal shells to live forever in a daylit cyberspace, Gibson implied his hope that film artists would become one with the new world of CGI enhanced film art, in the end. Indeed, the rescue of Mitchell’s double, Mona Lisa, and the implicitly Dorothy linked Kumiko Kanaka affirmed the implicit hope of Gibson that CGI enhanced film art would triumph, in the end. Gibson’s implicit hope that CGI enhanced film art would triumph over the TZ disaster was reaffirmed when he teamed up with Bruce Sterling on the twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced novel, The Difference Engine (1990).
‘The techniques employed here tonight are of some special interest! While the screen’s resolution is quite modest, and the refresh-rate positively slow, remarkable effects have been secured, one presumes, through algorithm compression-but I fear that is all a bit technical.’
For the battles that raged throughout the novel between neo-Luddites and technophiles and their primitive cinema evoking kinotropes run by computer evoking Babbage Machines in this allegorical novel set mostly in London in 1855 in an alternate Earth evoked the real life battles raging between non-CGI enhanced film art purists and CGI embracing film art futurists and their primitive CGI enhanced films in the real world by 1990, implicitly affirming that Gibson and Sterling were optimistically addressing the emerging world of CGI in The Difference Engine. Indeed, the fact that a tiny steam racing machine called the Zephyr driven by the implicitly Spielberg linked Henry Chesteron beat five larger steam racing machines in a London race in the Second Iteration: Derby Day, part of the second of the novel affirmed the implicit hope of Gibson and Sterling that CGI enhanced film art would prevail, for the tiny steam racer implicitly symbolized Pixar, the equally tiny company that at the time was working hard to perfect CGI so as to beat the five equally big live action Hollywood studios by being the first studio to release an all CGI allegorical film, a mission Pixar accomplished five years later with the twilit and allegorical John Lasseter film, TOY STORY (1995). This implication was implicitly affirmed by the name of the creator of the Zephyr, for Michael Godwin evoked Edwin Catmull, the creator of CGI and the head of Pixar-particularly if Godwin’s names were reversed so that Godwin Michael looked and sounded like Edwin Catmull.
Significantly, the novel’s main savant protagonist, one Edward ‘Ned’ Mallory, made a lot of money betting on the Zephyr to win the big race. This reminded us that Lucas made a lot of money betting that Catmull’s early CGI work would enhance the success of the STAR WARS Classic Trilogy, implicitly linking Mallory to Lucas in a way that implied that Gibson was beginning to warm up to the embattled film artist. The implicit link of flash dressing Evildoer William ‘Captain Swing’ Collins to Landis, and of Lucien Arslau, Jean Beraud, Lord Charles Darwin, Benjamin ‘Dizzy’ Disraeli, Harriet ‘Hetty’ Edwardes, King of the Bill-Stickers, Michael ‘Mick’ Radley to Luc Besson, Jean ‘Moebius’ Giraud, Frank Herbert, Stan ‘the Man’ Lee, Kathryn Bigelow, Alfred Hitchcock and Sir Ridley Scott reaffirmed the implicit film, literary and narrative artist addressing intent of the novel. In fact, given the implicit links of the novel’s main characters to film artists, the implication was that London, the epicentre of a world empire, symbolized Hollywood, the epicentre of a world and increasingly and confidently CGI enhanced film art empire. At any rate, an implicit interest in CGI enhanced film art that returned when Gibson went solo again with his twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced and Ozian themed novel, Virtual Light (1993).
‘Kept talking about his apostasy
and these movies he liked,
and somebody called Cronenberg.’
Significantly, the novel began on a smoggy day in Mexico City in a future only slightly more advanced than the present of 1993, with citizens jacking into the net with virtual headsets and gloves rather than headjacks, immediately distancing itself from the Sprawl Trilogy. Of course, the smog of Mexico City evoked the stinking pollution that plagued London in The Difference Engine, implicitly affirming that Gibson was continuing kinotropic themes from that novel in Virtual Light. Indeed, the novel openly referenced Cronenberg and his eerily prescient and twilit allegorical film, VIDEODROME (1982), and one of the first cinematic salvoes in the dread Zone Wars, the twilit and allegorical Lamont Johnson film, SPACEHUNTER: ADVENTURES IN THE FORBIDDEN ZONE (1983)-whose studio scenes were shot in a warehouse in Vancouver-openly linking Virtual Light to the year of the release of TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE, the year of the TZ disaster, the film art of Cronenberg in particular, and the film art of Toronto and Vancouver in general.
There were all sorts of other allusions to allegorical film art in this novel, including a supporting character named Kevin Tarkovsky whose surname evoked Soviet film artist Andrei Tarkovsky, perhaps best known for the allegorical and implicitly Roman Polanski and Sharon Tate addressing film, SOLARIS (1972). Last but not least, an implicitly Cowardly Lion linked but intrepid and determined Japanese sociologist named Shinya Yamazaki openly linked the novel to the twilit and disastrous year of 1982 via Kiyoshi Yamasaki’s immortal Sword Master in the allegorical and implicitly Lucas roasting John Milius film, CONAN THE BARBARIAN (1982). Thus, Gibson finally and openly confirmed that the twilit and disastrous year of 1982 and the film art of the dread Zone Wars had indeed been on his mind July 23, 1982 and was the implicit target of the Sprawl Trilogy.
Making one wonder if the ultra-indie arts and tek community found living on the remains of the Golden Gate Bridge in post-earthquake apocalypse San Francisco symbolized indie film artists who were crafting their CGI enhanced celluloid film art in a Nineties that was itself an era that was acting as a bridge between celluloid film art and fully digital film art. And if the triumph of the accident and dismissal prone and implicitly Scarecrow linked ex-police officer and security guard Rydell over the implicitly Tin Man linked San Fran bigwig Lucius Warbaby that got Rydell back into the good books of the implicitly Glinda linked L.A. lawyer Karen Mendelsohn and proved his love for the abandoned and implicitly Dorothy linked Chevette Washington, in the end, symbolized the hope of Gibson that the equally accident and dismissal prone Landis would triumph over the disapproving bigwigs in the film art community like the San Fran based Lucas and get back in the good books of L.A. based Kennedy or Spielberg with a successful film that would prove his love of film art and win back audiences, in the end.
At any rate, Chevette Washington was not only boldly and confidentially realized in a way that implicitly affirmed that the confidence of Gibson in his creative abilities was still high, but noticeably a San Fran bike courier who safely transferred valuable data between corporations worried about hacking if they transmitted that data over the internet. This courier job evoked the biodigital courier service of Johnny in ‘Johnny Mnemonic’, making it fitting that Gibson should next write the screenplay for an expanded and reworked cinematic version of ‘Johnny Mnemonic’ that fused the original story with elements of Count Zero and Neuromancer and affirmed his long implicit support for CGI enhanced indie film art in the twilit, Ozian themed, CGI enhanced and allegorical Robert Longo film, JOHNNY MNEMONIC (1995).
‘Send it out!’
Indeed, the film opened with a full colour and mindbending CGI journey through the internet that evoked the geometrically kaleidoscopic vision of the internet that Gibson presented to readers in the Sprawl Trilogy, immediately affirming his implicit support for the consensual hallucination of CGI. Soon after this kaleidoscopic journey, the film continued the implicit interest in addressing Cronenberg seen in Virtual Light rather than the implicit interest in addressing Spielberg seen in ‘Johnny Mnemonic’. For we found ourselves in a bed in a room in the New Darwin Hotel in Beijing with the implicitly Cronenberg and Scarecrow linked and seasoned cybernaut, Johnny ‘John Smith’ Mnemonic-played by Keanu Reeves. After being abandoned by his beautiful lover-played by Robin Crosby-in typical Gibson tech noir fashion, Mnemonic accepted one last data courier job from the duplicitous Ralfi Face-played by Udo Kier-so as to earn the money to pay for the operation to remove the data cache in his brain and return his childhood memories. Curiously, this last job saw two implicitly Lucas and Spielberg linked PharmaKom defectors-played by Arthur Eng and Ron Flores, respectively-at the Hotel Beijing in Beijing upload 320 gigabytes of top secret PharmaKom data that revealed the cure for the dreaded Nerve Attenuation Syndrome (NAS) aka the Black Shakes plaguing the world of 2021 into the data cache in his head.
Taking the data to the Free City of Newark, New Jersey, the far more able, confident and two-fisted Mnemonic than the one met in ‘Johnny Mnemonic’ joined forces with the implicitly Dorothy linked Jane-a tough and combative but watered down version of Millions played by Dina Meyer-the shrewd, knowing and implicitly Tin Man and Screamin’ Stephen King linked Spider-played by Henry Rollins-and heavenly LoTek rebels led by the implicitly Cowardly Lion linked J-Bone-played by Ice-T-and triumphed, in the end, over the implicitly Landis and Nikko linked psychotic razorwire thumbed thug, Shinji-noticeably taken out by Mnemonic instead of Jane/Molly as in ‘Johnny Mnemonic’, and played by Denis Akiyama-his boss, the implicitly Sir Ridley Scott and Wicked Witch of the West linked PharmaKom yakuza leader, Takahashi-played by Takeshi Kitano-and the callously violent and implicitly James Cameron linked cyborg messiah, Street Preacher of the Church of the Retransfiguration-played by Dolph Lundgren-implied the hope of Gibson and Longo that indie film artists like Cronenberg and their higher minded and lightly CGI enhanced indie film art would triumph over more commercial film artists like Cameron and their more extensively CGI enhanced film art, and over Landis and the TZ disaster.
Indeed, the appearance of Akiyama as Shinji reaffirmed the film’s implicit interest in Cronenberg, as Akiyama had a bit part as a pharmacist in the allegorical Cronenberg film, DEAD RINGERS (1988). The film’s allusions to such twilit and allegorical Cronenberg films as VIDEODROME, SCANNERS (1980) and THE DEAD ZONE (1983), the use of Cronenberg’s favourite editor, Ronald Sanders, to edit the film and the fact that the film was shot primarily in Cronenberg’s hometown of Toronto reaffirmed Mnemonic’s link to Cronenberg. The presence of Don Francks as Hooky the bartender also affirmed the film’s implicit interest in Cronenberg, as Francks played Elder the wise mechanic in the allegorical and implicitly Kubrick addressing Cronenberg film, FAST COMPANY (1978).
In addition, Gibson and Longo also implied their hope that Mnemonic’s victory would bring daylit peace and harmony back to the twilit Temple Theatre, at last. For after defeating Shinji and the Street Preacher, Mnemonic was able to jack back into the CGI realized virtual reality enhanced version of the internet called VRT Online and crack some powerful black ice with the help of a digital version of the implicitly Great and Powerful Oz linked Jones the dolphin and the implicitly Glinda the Good linked internet ghost of his mother, Anna Kalmann-played by Barbara Sukowa, who again openly linked JOHNNY MNEMONIC to the film art of Cronenberg via her appearance as Jeanne Gallimard in the ambiguous allegorical Cronenberg film, M. BUTTERFLY (1993). Once this black ice was cracked, Mnemonic downloaded free on the internet all 320 gigabytes of the PharmaKom Industries data he was carrying in his brain, priceless data that revealed the cure for the dreaded Black Shakes caused by an information overload that evoked the Zone War inundation that had engulfed the Temple Theatre since 1982. Thus, when health and happiness was implicitly returned to all of the people of Earth at the end of the film, daylit health and harmony was also returned to audiences, film art, film artists and the Temple Theatre, underlined by the fact that PharmaKom had the same three syllable cadence as Twilight Zone.
Ironically, given the thra