PAWNS OF GLORY:
the inability of Old and New Hollywood film artists
to escape merciless fate
and the Hollywood studios
in the allegorical film art
of Stanley Kubrick
by Gary W. Wright
Like most film artists creating film art in the early Eighties, chess luvin’ film artist Stanley Kubrick was no doubt disheartened and disturbed by the deaths of actor/director/writer Vic Morrow and illegally hired and employed child extras Renee Chen and Myca in a helicopter crash around 2:20 am in the early morning of July 23, 1982 on the George Folsey jr. produced John Landis set of the twilit and allegorical, Kathleen Kennedy and Frank Marshall produced Landis, Joe Dante, George Miller and Steven Spielberg film TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE (1983). However, unlike most film artists, Kubrick would not have been too surprised by the deaths of Chen, Le and Morrow or by the fact that Folsey jr., Kennedy, Landis, Marshall and Spielberg suffered little or no consequences for the deaths. For a pessimistic conviction that people in general and film artists in particular were powerless pawns of those in positions of wealth and power was as prominent a feature of Kubrick’s feature film art as an ominously twilit ambience, a tendency to be based on equally allegorical novels and a commitment to a documentary evoking “docufeature” realism.
In addition, and also unlike most film artists with the exceptions of James Cameron and Sir Peter Jackson, Kubrick was a self taught film artist. For he was a childhood photography enthusiast turned teenaged and adult LOOK magazine photojournalist who learned the tricks of the film trade by creating three short allegorical documentary films and one equally short and allegorical docufeature film as a young adult, an indie film art path that began when Kubrick donned the writer/director/director of photography (DOP) hats on the black and white allegorical indie documentary short film FLYING PADRE (1951), a film released on March 23, 1951.
“There’s no brass band here,
no cheering crowds,
no newspapermen clamoring for a headline.”
Curiously, the Bob Hite voiceover (VO) narrated film revolved around two days in the indomitable and selfless life of the mild mannered and canary luving and raising but sharp shooting Catholic priest Reverend Fred Stadtmueller, two days in which the indomitable padre flew up up and away in his trusty prop plane The Spirit Of St. Joseph to aid his far flung flock in the stark but beautiful desertscape of Harding County in north eastern New Mexico, anticipating Kubrick’s own implicit link to Superman in a eerily twilit film to come. Intriguingly, the desertscapes of Harding County evoked those seen in the western themed film art of John Ford, giving a Ford Western spirit to the short film and implying a possible link of Rev. Stadtmueller to Ford. A sweet and innocent Latina girl parishioner who resembled a young Sofia Carmina Coppola (SCC) and a young mother who resembled an adult SCC also anticipated the arrival of SCC. Significantly, an indomitable Catholic spirit returned when Kubrick donned the writer/director/producer/DOP hats for the black and white and twilit and allegorical indie documentary short film DAY OF THE FIGHT (1951), a film released on March 30, 1951 that was based on a photo essay he had created for LOOK magazine.
“This is a fighter…
It’s a hard life but to him
it’s worth all the hardship and the risk.
To him, it’s worth everything.”
For the Douglas Edwards VO narrated film revolved around one day in the battling life of the talented young Catholic and indie loner New York boxer Walter “Wally” Cartier, a day that saw him use his “…exploding punch” to defeat his opponent Robert “Bobby” James and triumph in the ring for his 36th TKO in a way that implied the hope of the equally talented, young and New York born and raised indie loner Kubrick that he would also succeed in defeating his opponents and triumphing in the Temple Theatre with his explosive and spirited indie docufeature film art. A smoking restaurant owner named Dan Stampler who resembled Walt Disney and who was Cartier’s most exuberant supporter was also the first sign of Kubrick’s implicit interest in Disney in his film art.
Alas for Kubrick, a “…Landes” was hidden in the surname of Stampler, making it all too fitting that a young male spectator seen at one point in the crowd also resembled a young and clean shaven Landis, ominously and eerily anticipating the arrival of Landis in the Temple Theatre, the TZ disaster, and Kubrick’s own implicit cinematic bouts with Landis. Thus, right from the beginning, an ominous twilight overshadowed Kubrick and his battle for indie docufeature glory, a battle that began when the budding young film artist donned the director/DOP/producer/editor hats and teamed up with his wife Toba Kubrick and again with DAY OF THE FIGHT composer Gerald Fried and joined the Brotherhood of the Silver Screen with the eerily twilit and allegorical black and white indie docufeature short film FEAR AND DESIRE (1953), released on March 31, 1953.
“…There is war in this forest.
Not a war that has been fought,
or one that will be,
but any war.
And the enemies that struggle here do not exist
unless we call them into being.
This forest, then, and all that happens now,
is outside history.
Only the unchanging shapes
of fear and doubt and death are from our world.
These soldiers that you see
keep our language and our time,
but have no other country but the mind.”
Significantly, after the camera panned across a dense forest of the complex and haunted mind, one of the first shots in the film was of a small prop plane flying high in the sky, a lone prop plane like that flown by Rev. Stadtmueller in FLYING PADRE. However, far from being another triumph of faith and technology as in FLYING PADRE, FEAR AND DESIRE then came across as an ominously twilit memory of the future. For David Allen’s opening VO that set the embattled allegorical scene and the theme of the piece and also set the audience up for an one hour black and white and openly allegorical and implicit exploration of the battles that an indie film artist had to fight both within and without in order to create indie film art in the symbolic form of four soldiers battling for survival in a nameless forest located in a Hollywood Hills evoking setting also anticipated and came across as the real first pilot episode of the original and equally allegorical and often embattled black and white TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series, complete with music composed by Fried that anticipated the famous theme for the TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series. Thus, it was grimly and ominously fitting that two of the film’s actors, Paul Mazursky and Frank Silvera, went on to play four roles in the TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series.
Significantly, given that the two soldiers played by Mazursky and Silvera-Sidney and Mac, respectively-gave in to their Dark Sides and went mad, with Sidney even losing it so much that he first tried to rape and then he shot and killed the fleeing silent and beautiful young brunette woman-played by Virginia Leith-captured at one point in the forest of the mind while the other two soldiers, Lieutenant Corby and Fletcher-played by Kenneth Harp and Stephen Coit, respectively-hunted down and killed their Dark Sides in the form of the enemy general and his captain-literal Dark Sides, as the two were also played by Harp and Coit, respectively, dualities that evoked Cartier’s twin brother Vincent “Vince” Cartier in DAY OF THE FIGHT-Kubrick implied that he believed that man’s battle with himself was as important, if not more so, than man’s battle with man or with the environment. An inner battle that Kubrick implicitly acknowledged within himself, given that Fletcher resembled and was implicitly linked to Kubrick. Curiously, while he resembled Harvey Kurtzman of MAD comic fame, the name of Sidney was an anagram of Disney, implying that Kubrick was also roasting Disney and his film art in FEAR AND DESIRE.
Significantly, an ominous and eerily twilit ambience was also seen and heard that year when Kubrick donned the director/DOP hats for the twilit and allegorical indie documentary short film THE SEAFARERS (1953), a colour film released on October 15, 1953 that evoked and alluded to the allegorical Jules Dassin film THE NAKED CITY (1948), a film that saw the implicitly President Harry S Truman linked NYPD Detective Dan Muldoon-played by Barry Fitzgerald-triumph over the implicitly Adolf Hitler linked ex-wrestling star William “Billy” Garzah-played by Ted De Corsia-in a not too subtle reminder to audiences and voters in the pivotal U.S. election year of 1948 that President Truman and his Democrats presided over the victory of Nazi Germany in May of 1945.
“It’s a true spirit of independence…
(but) nobody knows better than a seafaring man
that any man, however independent he is,
isn’t entirely independent…
he’s a member of something larger…
he’s a member of a crew,
a crew of men like himself
bonded together for one essential common purpose.”
Indeed, the opening and closing remarks by Don Hollenbeck that preceded and summarized this half hour ode to the many benefits to being a member of the CanAm Seafarers International Union (SIU) not only evoked the opening, ongoing and closing narration of THE NAKED CITY by its producer Mark Hellinger, but eerily anticipated the opening and closing remarks of each episode of the original TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series by Rod Serling, complete with the same constraining suit, smoking cigarette in one hand and strained and uncomfortable way of earnestly addressing the camera and the presumed audience. In fact, a bespectacled and smoking union official who resembled the cigarette luving Serling was seen towards the end of the film, affirming the implicitly anticipatory nature of THE SEAFARERS. The sight of one Warner Haynie amongst the names of seafarer brothers who had given their lives for the United States in World War II was also eerily prescienct, for his name evoked Warner Brothers, the Hollywood studio that released TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE, and the studio with which Kubrick would make his last five films.
In addition, the sight of James and Lloyd Henderson on the list of immortal dead evoked the pseudonym Philip Henderson used by the prostitute frequenting Doctor Lawrence Stoneman-played by House Jameson-in THE NAKED CITY, affirming that film’s implicit influence on THE SEAFARERS. Indeed, the sight of a young seaman who resembled Dassin, and another who resembled Hitler-complete with a young wife who resembled Eva Braun and a daughter dressed in the black, red and white of the swastika flag of the Third Reich-implicitly affirmed that Kubrick was playfully alluding to THE NAKED CITY in THE SEAFARERS.
Curiously, this ominously prescient link to allegorical film art was fitting. For the CanAm “Brotherhood Of The Sea” evoked a CanAm film artists union and the “brotherhood of the screen” so much it was actually a dangerous contract assignment for young Kubrick to accept in his eagerness for more film art experience, given that the commie hating and union bashing spirit of the era was embraced with spinelessly strident obedience by the Hollywood studios. Indeed, the big, modern and multi-story headquarters of the Atlantic And Gulf Coast District (AGDC) of the SIU in New York, complete with office space for the leadership, a hiring hall-where one of the brother sailors looking hopefully for work resembled Kubrick-a cafeteria and a barbershop affirmed that implication, for the AGCD HQ resembled a Hollywood studio. Fittingly, given that Kubrick would go on to base most of his Hollywood feature films on novels, the SIU and its AGCD HQ in New York featured prominently in such early albeit posthumously published allegorical Jack Kerouac novels as And The Hippos Were Boiled In Their Tanks (2008)-written with William S. Burroughs-and The Sea Is My Brother (2011). Thus, it was fitting that a printer who resembled Kerouac was seen in the print shoppe of the AGCD HQ.
Significantly, the following year Alfred Hitchcock implicitly became the first film artist to address Kubrick, implying in the triumph of the implicitly Kubrick linked photographer L.B. “Jeff” Jeffries-played by James Stewart-over the insidious wife killer and costume jewelry salesman Lars Thorwald-played by prominent television actor Raymond Burr-his hope that Kubrick would triumph over television and bring audiences back to the Temple Theatre with his film art in the allegorical docufeature film REAR WINDOW (1954), a film released on August 4, 1954 that was inspired by a short story by Cornell Woolrich. Indeed, the fact that the triumph of Jeffries also led to his triumph with the beautiful blonde Lisa Fremont-played by Grace Kelly-affirmed the implicit intent of the film, for the blonde beauty of Fremont evoked Hollywood film art, an implicit interest in California affirmed by the surname Fremont, and the fact that her first name began with an “L” and ended with an “A”, linking Lisa to L.A. The sight of the beautiful and ominously nicknamed buxom blonde ballet dancer, Miss Torso, embracing her Stanley, in the end, reaffirmed the implicit Kubrick addressing intent of REAR WINDOW. Curiously, the implicit sympathetic interest of Hitchcock was not missed, for Kubrick implicitly replied to Hitchcock when he soon donned the director/DOP/editor/co-writer/co-producer hats and collaborated again with Fried and Silvera on the black and white, allegorical and DAY OF THE FIGHT and THE NAKED CITY evoking indie docufeature film with the Hollywood cadenced name KILLER’S KISS (1955), released on September 21, 1955.
“Gordon’s long career…
has been one long promise without fulfillment,
at least thus far.”
Significantly, the film began one lonely evening with the Cartier resembling, down on his luck, weak jawed and implicitly Hitchcock linked veteran Seattle born and raised but New York based indie boxer David “Davy” Gordon-who supplied the film long VO, and was played by Jamie Smith-longingly pondering the beautiful, sweet and Kelly evoking blonde Gloria Price-played by Irene Kane-through the rear window of his apartment, evoking the sight and sound of the laid up with a broken leg Jeffries pondering the lives of other residents of his apartment complex through the rear window of his apartment in REAR WINDOW. Curiously, however, and unbeknownst to Gordon, Price also wistfully pondered him through her rear window, as well, in a change from REAR WINDOW. Then Gordon and Price left their apartments at the same time and met in the inner courtyard as they left that evening, he to a boxing match and she to be picked up by her money obsessed, domineering, brutish and boorish boss, the Jack Warner resembling and implicitly linked Vincent “Vinnie” Rapallo-played by Silvera-and driven to dance with single men at a lonely hearts club on Broadway with the Hollywood cadenced name of Pleasureland that was owned by Rapallo.
Just as significantly, and unlike Cartier in DAY OF THE FIGHT, Gordon lost his bout to “Kid” Rodriguez-presumably played by himself. However, the bout brought Gordon and Price together, and the discovery that Price was haunted by both the death of her mother giving birth to her and the suicide of her ballet luving and dancing older sister Iris-played by Ruth Sobotka. This relationship led Price to decide to abandon Rapallo’s brutish and controlling attentions and to flee to Seattle with Gordon, a decision that eventually led to Gordon killing Rapallo in the climatic struggle in a horrorshow loft where mannequins were created that was filled with dismembered mannequin torsos, arms and legs and decapitated heads, a perfect location for an implicitly Hitchcock addressing climax.
As the victorious indie Gordon then led the ironically surnamed Price to married freedom in Seattle far away from the brutal, blockbuster loot lusting and televised boxing rings and the crassly commercial Broadway location of Pleasureland with its oh so beguiling and garishly lit cinemas, in the end, Kubrick implied both his hope that Hitch would ditch Hollywood and retire to a better and higher minded life and his own commitment to film art for film art’s sake rather than for blockbuster loot’s sake with KILLER’S KISS. Indeed, the fact that a handbill for Gordon’s final bout was seen in a window of the Hollywood Barber Shop at the beginning of the film affirmed his implicit link to a film artist like Hitchcock. Gordon’s Grace Kelly evoking Aunt Grace also affirmed the implicit interest in REAR WINDOW in KILLER’S KISS.
Fittingly, soon after the release of KILLER’S KISS, Kubrick reaffirmed his implicit commitment to film art for film art’s sake when he donned the writer/director hats and collaborated again with Fried and KILLER’S KISS distributon United Artists and implicitly roasted Ford in their first allegorical Hollywood studio docufeature film THE KILLING (1956), a black and white film released on May 19, 1956 and inspired by the allegorical Lionel White novel Clean Break (1955).
How about some service,
you stupid looking Irish pig?”
Indeed, after an opening VO-narrated by Art Gilmore-that evoked the narration of Kubrick’s short indie documentary films set the scene, Kubrick implicitly likened the quest of Ford and his most famous collaborator, John Wayne, to inspire casts and crews to box office success to the tragicomic quest of Johnny Clay and the Wayne resembling and implicitly linked crooked cop Randy Kennan-played by Sterling Hayden and Ted de Corsia, respectively-to inspire a bunch of blockbuster loot obsessed robbers to successfully rob the Lansdowne racetrack. In addition, as Clay and his gang were almost relieved of their loot by the conniving and Dolores Fuller and Edward Davis “Ed” Wood jr. resembling and implicitly linked Sherry Peatty and her luver Val-played by Marie Windsor and Vince Edwards, respectively-Kubrick implied that he was also roasting Wood jr. and Fuller, who had then recently starred in the allegorical Wood jr. indie docufeature film GLEN OR GLENDA (1953), a film whose film long VO narration, courtesy of Timothy Farrell in his role as the experienced and knowing Doctor Alton, evoked that of Hollenbeck in THE SEAFARERS. Indeed, the sight and sound of Maurice Oboukhoff-played by real life wrestler Kola Kwariani-causing a disturbance at the race track to aid the robbery affirmed the film’s implicit interest in Wood jr., for the huge man evoked the equally huge and real life wrestler Tor Johnson who had popped up as the implicitly Hitchcock linked Lobo when Wood jr. teamed up again with Fuller, Bela Lugosi-who played the mysterious and all powerful science luving man in the chair in GLEN OR GLENDA-and William C. Thompson-DOP on GLEN OR GLENDA-on the allegorical indie docufeature film BRIDE OF THE MONSTER (1955).
Significantly, as everyone died in their attempt to make a blockbuster killing except Oboukhoff and a glum Clay and his wife Fay-played by Coleen Gray-who were picked up at the airport trying to flee with the loot by two airport plain clothes officers who fittingly resembled Ford and an aide-played by Charles Cane and Robert B. Williams, respectively-Kubrick implied that he was not fond of Ford and Wood jr. and their film art, to say the least, and that a commitment to film art for blockbuster loot’s sake inevitably led to dusty death, making it fitting that the film was created in the Greater Los Angeles Area (GLAA). A funny and Hitchcock resembling and implicitly linked lady with a dog-played by Cecil Elliot-at the airport also implied that Kubrick was roasting Hitchcock after implicitly toasting him in the form of Gordon in KILLER’S KISS.
And so an implicitly pessimistic belief that film artists were pawns of glory who were doomed to be destroyed by their own blockbuster lusts was made for the first time in a Kubrick feature film. And so Wood jr. happily donned the writer/director/producer/editor hats and teamed up again with Lugosi, Thompson and Lyle Talbot-who played the hard pressed Inspector in GLEN OR GLENDA-and implicitly replied to Kubrick and THE KILLING in the allegorical indie docufeature classic PLAN 9 FROM OUTER SPACE (1957), a film released on March 15, 1957.
Indeed, the implicit allegorical intent of the film was affirmed by the fact that Johnson returned as the undead and implicitly Hitchcock linked police Inspector Daniel Clay, whose name evoked Johnny Clay, that passenger plane pilot Captain Jeff Trent-played by Gregory Walcott-resembled and was implicitly linked to Hayden, that Capt. Trent’s wife Paula-played by Mona McKinnon-resembled and was implicitly linked to Gray, that the relentless Vampire Girl-played by Maila Nurmi-resembled Ruth Kubrick, the wife of Kubrick at the time, and that police officers Jamie and Kelton-played by Conrad Brooks and Paul Marco, respectively-resembled and were implicitly linked to Harris and Kubrick. Thus, the fact that Capt. and Mrs. Trent and officers Jamie and Kelton triumphed over the undead Insp. Clay and his twisted trio alien puppet masters Ruler, Eros and Taana-played by John Breckinridge, Dudley Manlove and Joanna Lee, respectively-in the end, implied the hope of Wood jr. that Kubrick and his film art would triumph over that of Hitchcock.
And so an implicit dislike of Disney linked to embattled soldiers with more ominously twilit memories of the future and a reaffirmation of Kubrick’s implicit pessimistic conviction that people and film artists were pawns of glory all returned when Kubrick donned the co-writer/director hats and teamed up again with Fried, United Artists, James B. Harris-producer of THE KILLING-and Timothy Carey and Joseph “Joe” Turkel-who played greedy doomed criminals Nikki Arcane and Tiny, respectively, in THE KILLING-on the black and white, FEAR AND DESIRE evoking and eerily and presciently twilit and allegorical docufeature film PATHS OF GLORY (1957), released on October 25, 1957 and inspired by the allegorical Humphrey Cobb novel Paths Of Glory (1935).
“The men died wonderfully.”
Indeed, in many ways PATHS OF GLORY was the implicitly and tragicomically leading exemplar of the pessimistic belief of Kubrick that people and film artists were the pawns of glory and of the powerful. For after another opening VO-narrated by Peter Cappel-set the scene in the Great War in France 1916, the film saw the reputation of the implicitly Richard Fleischer linked French General Paul Mireau-played by George Macready-destroyed after he allowed himself to be persuaded by the implicitly Disney linked General George Broulard-played by Adolphe Menjou-to use his 701st Regiment in a doomed and failed attack on a heavily fortified and garrisoned German hilltop position called the Ant Hill, a destruction of his reputation helped by the fact that Gen. Mireau tried to order his artillery to fire on his troops in order ot get them to leave the trenches when they became pinned down by heavy German artillery and machine-gun fire, implying that Kubrick believed that Fleischer destroyed his reputation working with Disney on the allegorical docufeature film 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA (1954). Indeed, in their conversation in the trenches shortly before the attack on the German maze of trenches fittingly named Ant Hill, Gen. Mireau and the commander of the doomed attack, Colonel Dax-played by Kirk Douglas, who openly linked the film to 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA via his role as the irrepressible harpooner Ned Land in that film-discussed mice and Mausers, openly affirming the film’s implicit interest in the Mouse House. The French palace that Gen. Mireau commandeered for his headquarters also affirmed the film’s implicit interest in Disney, as it evoked the castle that was the centrepiece of the then newly opened Disney World.
Significantly, the failure of the attack led Gen. Mireau to try to save his reputation by blaming the failure on the cowardice of him men rather than on their inability to advance very far out of their trenches due to the heavy German artillery and withering machine-gun fire, and insisting that an ominously twilit trio of innocent conscripted soldiers of the 701st Regiment-Private Maurice Ferol, Private Pierre Arnaud and Corporal Phillip Paris, played by Carey, Turkel and Ralph Meeker, respectively-be randomly picked for execution by firing squad. Fittingly, the seven black mustached and Disney resembling fellow soldiers ordered to guard the three condemned soldiers prior to their execution evoked the seven famous dwarves of the allegorical Disney animated film SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARVES (1937), reaffirming the implicit Disney addressing intent of the film.
Alas, the additional failure of Col. Dax, a successful lawyer before the war, to prevent the eerily twilit trio from being sentenced to death at their court martial implied that Kubrick felt that underlings such as assistant directors would also be blamed for the failure of films. Given that Pte. Arnaud resembled and was implicitly linked to Kubrick, Kubrick also implied his pessimistic belief that he was all too well aware that he was not immune to being casually and callously cast aside if the heads of film studios decided he was not useful to them. Last but not least, the implicit link of Hitchcock to a shell shocked 701st soldier-played by Fred Bell-who was slapped in the face and accused of cowardice by Gen. Mireau during a tour of the trenches implicitly reaffirmed Kubrick’s fondness for roasting Hitch.
And then the show would go on as always, literally, as the film ended with a captured and curvaceous brunette German lass-played by Christiane Harlan, who would go on to be the wife of Kubrick-being forced to sing on stage at a club for the enjoyment of soldiers of the 701st Regiment, beautiful and shapely young brunette linked to the live dramatic arts who anticipated another beautiful and shapely young brunette implicitly linked to indie cinematic dramatic arts. As for Lewis Milestone, he implicitly and grimly reminded Kubrick that brutal and suicidal battles sometimes had to be fought if a war was to be won and victory achieved in his allegorical and implicitly PATHS OF GLORY addressing and evoking docufeature film PORK CHOP HILL (1959), released on May 29, 1957 and another black and white war film about one of the final battles fought by the U.S. Army in the Korean “police action” in 1953 with Gregory Peck as the implicitly Kubrick linked Lieutenant Joe Clemons. Wood jr. also donned the writer/director/producer/editor hats and teamed up again with Brooks, Johnson, Marco, Thompson and Tom Mason-who teamed up with Lugosi to play the Dracula evoking Ghoul Man in PLAN 9 FROM OUTER SPACE-to implicitly address Kubrick again in the form of Officer Kelton-played again by Marco-who triumphed, in the end, over the implicitly Disney linked and blockbuster loot obsessed con artist Dr. Acula-played by Kenne Duncan-in the twilit and allegorical indie docufeature film NIGHT OF THE GHOULS (1959). Then Kubrick donned the director’s hat and teamed up again with Douglas-who traded Dax for a legendary descendent of Thrax, son of Ares and founder of Thrace-and Harris to continue his pessimistic musings on implicitly film artist linked pawns of glory in the full colour allegorical studio docufeature film SPARTACUS (1960), filmed in Super Technirama-70, released on October 6, 1960 and inspired by the allegorical Howard Fast docufiction novel Spartacus (1951).
“No man can withstand Rome.”
Indeed, after another VO-narrated by A.I. Smithee-set the scene, the sight of the pugnacious and implicitly David Lean linked Thracian slave Spartacus-played by Douglas-chained and starving to death in the blistering Libyan sun as an example for his fellow slaves after attacking his Roman guards at the beginning of the film evoked the three French soldiers executed for cowardice as an example for their fellow soldiers at the end of PATHS OF GLORY, immediately affirming that Kubrick continued his pessimistic musings in SPARTACUS. However, unlike the three French soldiers, Spartacus was freed by the discerning and exuberantly wily, duplicitous and greedy gladiator school owner Lentulus Batiatus-played by Peter Ustinov-and sent to his school in Capua, southern Italy, to be trained as a gladiator. Here the brutal treatment of the gladiators and the luv of Spartacus for the beautiful, shapely and educated brunette slave from Britannia, Varinia-a luv for a slave from Britannia that affirmed the implicit link of Spartacus to an Englishman, and played by Jean Simmons-a luv as fierce as that of the gladiator pugilist Davy for the equally beautiful Gloria in KILLER’S KISS, inspired Spartacus to lead his fellow gladiators and all of the slaves they could liberate in Sicily in a free spirited rebellion against the wealth and power of Old Rome, an indie rebellion that implicitly equated with Lean being inspired by a luv of indie film art to lead a rebellion of world film artists against the wealth and power of Old Hollywood.
Indeed, shortly before the uprising, Batiatus affirmed the implicit link of the gladiators to film artists. For his comment that one of the gladiators, Dionysus-played by Nicholas Dennis-looked bigger in the arena due to “optics” reminded us that film stars often surprised and disappointed fans by being shorter and smaller in person than they were on the big screen. Thus, it was fitting that there was an “art” hidden within Spartacus. In addition, the fact that the Roman Senate leader Gracchus-played by Charles Laughton-resembled and was implicitly linked to Hitchcock and fellow Senators Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus and Marcus Publius Glabrus-played by John Gavin, Laurence Olivier and John Dall, respectively-resembled and were implicitly linked to Marlon Brando (or was that Rock Hudson?), Richard Burton and Eddie Fisher, respectively, reaffirmed the implication that the powerful Roman establishment symbolized the powerful Old Hollywood establishment at that point in time. The wives of Crassus and Glabrus, Lady Helena and Lady Claudia Maria-played by Nina Foch and Joanna Barnes, respectively-reaffirmed that implication, as they resembled and were implicitly linked to Sybil Williams and Elizabeth Taylor, respectively.
Alas, the Spartacus led indie slave rebellion was as unsuccessful as the Col. Dax led battle for Ant Hill in PATHS OF GLORY, and Spartacus and all of his loyal indie followers were either killed in battle against the establishment legions of Rome or crucified along the Appian way, in the end, implying that Kubrick believed that Lean would be just as unsuccessful in his quest to succeed as an indie film artist who would inspire the creation of a more humane New Hollywood. In fact, the triumph of Old Rome over the rebellious and indie slave army anticipated the triumph of Old Hollywood over the indie rebels of New Hollywood, in time. However, the sight of Batiatus driving Varinia and the child sired by Spartacus by horse drawn cart down the Appian Way out of Rome to safety at the end of the film did imply the hope of Kubrick that a film artist would be born who would grow up and liberate film art forever from the tyrannical and blockbuster loot lusting grip of the Old Hollywood studios. A film art liberator who was implicitly not him, given that Kubrick implicitly linked himself to Antonius-played by Tony Curtis. For the young and doomed slave was killed by a heartbroken Spartacus in a duel that the crass Crassus forced the two men to fight before the crucifixion of Spartacus, implying that Kubrick also saw himself as an outsider doomed to be killed one day by the wealth and power of Old Hollywood. Significantly, shortly after the death of Antonius and the crucifixion of Spartacus, Gracchus committed suicide to avoid the wrath of Crassus, implying that Kubrick felt that Hitchcock was just as doomed as him.
And so SPARTACUS was a huge hit and Kubrick and company won four Oscars for Best Art Direction-Color, Best Cinematography-Color, Best Costume Design-Color and Best Supporting Actor. And so Ford implicitly roasted Stanley Kubrick in the form of Ransom Stoddard-played by Jimmy Stewart-an Eastern lawyer who struggled to adapt to life in a rough and implicitly Hollywood linked town out West and also implicitly roasted Christiane Kubrick in the form of the beautiful and sympathetic waitress Hallie Ericson-played by Vera Miles-in the allegorical docufeature film THE MAN WHO SHOT LIBERTY VALANCE (1962), a film released on April 13, 1962 whose implicit interest in Kubrick was affirmed by allusions to FLYING PADRE, KILLER’S KISS, SPARTACUS and THE KILLING and by the appearance of Woody Strode as Pompey, for Strode played the doomed gladiator Draba in SPARTACUS and Private Franklin in PORK CHOP HILL. And so gloomy predictions of doom for Hitchcock and himself continued despite the success of SPARTACUS and despite breaking free from resigned studio hack work and going on to take complete and fearless artistic control of his film art when Kubrick donned the co-writer/director hats, reunited with Harris and returned to black and white film on the allegorical and Ozian themed indie docufeature film LOLITA (1962), released on June 13, 1962 and inspired by the equally implicitly Hitchcock roasting Vladimir Nabokov novel Lolita (1955), making it fitting that Nabokov wrote the first draft of the screenplay for LOLITA.
“Have you ever seen any of those,
you know those, uhm, foreign films?
…I don’t like ‘em.”
Humourously, the film started with the opening titles playing over what turned out to be the sinister left foot of the rebellious and coquettish blonde teen “nymphet” Dolores “Lolita” Haze aka “Lola” or just plain “Lo”-played by Suellyn “Sue” Lyon-on the right of the screen lovingly and gently held by what turned out to be the equally sinister left hand of the lovesick, implicitly Hitchcock linked and Edgar A. Poe luving English literature Professor Humbert Humbert-played by James Mason, who linked another Kubrick film to 20, 000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA via his role as the mysterious and furiously anti-imperialist submariner Captain Nemo in that film-while his right hand lovingly and gently applied cotton batting to separate the toes and toenail polish to each toe, all to the sound of soft, tender and string filled symphonic music. This tableau cheekily recalled the sight of Adam on Earth below and on the left reaching out his left hand to the right hand of God on a cloud with his angels above and to the right in the famous image of the two painted by Michelangelo on the roof of the Sistine Chapel. This immediately and implicitly not only linked both characters to art, but also placed Prof. Humbert with the mortals and Lolita with the angels, and, hence, Los Angeles, the city of the angels and of film art. Indeed, the implicit link of Lolita to L.A. was affirmed by the fact that her nickname began with an “L” and ended with an “a”, and by the fact that her surname evoked the famous L.A. haze. This cheeky image then faded, to be replaced by the sight of Prof. Humbert driving down a long Appian way evoking highway that led to a mansion as palatial and well appointed as the Roman villa of Crassus or Gracchus, linking the beginning of LOLITA to the end of SPARTACUS.
Prof. Humbert then broke into the huge mansion and searched in the cluttered and messy interior for its owner, who turned out to be the mischievous and Wood jr. resembling teleplay writer Clare Quilty-played by Peter Sellers. Significantly, Humbert confronted Quilty, and then shot him dead. Fittingly, the last bullets to kill Quilty slammed through the canvas of an eighteenth century European painting of a beautiful young blonde woman that Quilty took cover behind, setting us up again for the arrival of the equally beautiful, young, blonde and implicitly film art linked Lolita. This murder evoked not just the three soldiers executed by firing squad at the end of PATHS OF GLORY, but also the sad sight of Spartacus killing Antonius at the end of SPARTACUS. Indeed, before he was killed, Quilty wrapped himself in a white bedsheet to create a makeshift toga and initially called himself Spartacus when Prof. Humbert asked him who he was, ironically reminding us that Spartacus refused to confirm his identity to Crassus at the end of SPARTACUS, reaffirming the link of the beginning of LOLITA to the end of SPARTACUS.
Then the film went back in time four years to the arrival in the fittingly Woodholly cadenced resort town of Ramsdale, New Hampshire in the new quasi-imperial post-WWII Rome of the United States of the creepy, eccentric, fussy and stuffy Prof. Humbert, and his success at ingratiating himself into the house and life of his landlord, the blonde, Marilyn Monroe resembling and implicitly Old Hollywood linked Charlotte Haze-implicitly linked to the Wicked Witch of the East by the music that preceded her appearance, and played by Shelley Winters-and his failure at wooing her equally blonde and implicitly Dorothy and New Hollywood linked daughter Lolita, whose left foot and its carefully painted toes we had already come to know. Indeed, the presence of Haze family friend Jean Farlow-played by Diana Decker-affirmed the film’s implicit interest in Old Hollywood, as her name evoked that of Jean Harlow. Curiously, Prof. Humbert’s tragicomic efforts to woo Lolita evoked not only Rapallo’s tragicomic efforts to woo Gloria in KILLER’S KISS but the tragicomic efforts by the equally eccentric, fussy and stuffy Hitchcock to ingratiate himself with the Good War generation of Americans and then their rebel boomer children with his film art after moving to the United States in 1939, and his equally creepy obsession with short and curvaceous Hollywood blondes.
Indeed, the choice of Mason as the obsessed, tragicomic and film long VO narration providing Humbert affirmed the implicit Hitchcock roasting intent of LOLITA, as Mason had played sinister Phillip Vandamm in the allegorical Hitchcock docufeature film NORTH BY NORTHWEST (1959). In addition, when first met sunbathing in the backyard of the Haze house, Lolita in her skimpy two piece bikini, white angelfeather sunhat-which reaffirmed her implicit link to the Hollywood film art of the city of the angels-and sunglasses looked like the twin sister of Frances Stevens-played by Kelly-who was also first met sunbathing in her two piece bikini, sunhat and sunglasses in the allegorical Hitchcock docufeature film TO CATCH A THIEF (1955), linking Lolita to Stevens and reaffirming the implication that Kubrick was roasting Hitchcock in LOLITA. The black and white LOLITA also evoked the equally black and white and allegorical Hitchcock film PSYCHO (1960), also affirming the implicit Hitchcock roasting intent of LOLITA. Last but not least, the sight of Humbert, Lo and Charlotte quaking in the Haze car as they watched the allegorical Terence Fisher docufeature film THE CURSE OF FRANKENSTEIN (1957), at a drive-in also affirmed that an English film artist with a fondness for horror was being roasted in LOLITA and openly linked Hum, Charlotte and Lo to English feature film art.
Significantly, soon after watching that clip of THE CURSE OF FRANKENSTEIN, Charlotte, Humbert and Lo met Quilty and his female companion Vivian Darkbloom-as silent as the nameless and beautiful young brunette woman in FEAR AND DESIRE, and played by Marianne Stone-for the first time at a dance at Ramsdale High School. Curiously, Darkbloom looked and dressed like Nurmi, who played the undead Vampire Girl in PLAN 9 FROM OUTER SPACE, implicitly linking Quilty to Wood jr., an implicit link affirmed by the film’s allusions to GLEN OR GLENDA, NIGHT OF THE GHOULS and PLAN 9 FROM OUTER SPACE. Just as curiously, after the death of Charlotte, which facilitated the open relationship of Prof. Humbert and Lolita, the film moved inexorably and tragicomically full circle to the arrival of the despondent and vengeful Prof. Humbert at the mansion of the mischievous Quilty, determined to gun him down for helping Lo escape his besotted clutches. A sight and sound that reminded us of the sight and sound of the implicitly Hitchcock linked Insp. Clay frozen with fear in a graveyard and desperately trying to gun down the relentlessly and remorselessly approaching Vampire Girl and the Ghoul Man before they transformed him into an undead monster midway through PLAN 9 FROM OUTER SPACE, reaffirming the implicit links of Humbert and Quilty to Hitchcock and Wood jr. Thus, given that both Humbert and Quilty failed to win over young Lolita to each of their causes, Kubrick implied that not only Wood jr. but also Hitchcock would fail to win over the gleefully irreverent and anti-Establishment young audiences and the young and restless film artists of New Hollywood who emerged in the early Sixties. A doomed attempt that was, nonetheless, implicitly acknowledged and sympathized with by Francis Coppola in his LOLITA evoking, implicitly Hitchcock and Kubrick toasting and fittingly entitled allegorical indie docufeature film DEMENTIA 13 (1963), arguably the first feature film of New Hollywood.
Last but not least, the sight of a hospital receptionist named Miss Fromkiss-played by Maxine Holden-who looked like Alfred E. Neuman, the gaptoothed and grinning face of MAD magazine and of Lolita fleeing Humbert in the end like Kelly fled Hitchcock for the Prince of Monaco for a young fellow named Richard P. Schuler-played by Gary Cockrell-who also looked like Alfred E. Neuman, was a fitting end to LOLITA. For this MAD ending reminded us that the mischievous Boomers loved MAD magazine-indeed, a paperback collection of MAD was seen on a kitchen bookshelf in the Haze house-and prepared us for even more merciless roasts of Old Hollywood film artists to the Mutually Assured Delight (MAD) of audiences when Kubrick put on the MADcap for his next feature film. 1
Curiously, the resemblance and implicit link to Kubrick of the first male customer-played by Alain Smithee-of newfound prostitute Nana-played by Anna Karina-in the allegorical Jean-Luc Godard film VIVRE SA VIE (1962), a film released on August 28, 1962 that implied that Godard thought that Kubrick was abandoning indie film art for film art’s sake in favour of Hollywood film art for blockbuster profit’s sake with films like SPARTACUS. Indeed, a poster for SPARTACUS seen on a cinema wall shortly before the arrival of the first man affirmed his implicit link to Kubrick. As for Hitchcock, he did indeed implicitly roast Kubrick in turn in his allegorical film THE BIRDS (1963), a film released on March 28, 1963 whose implicit allegorical intent was affirmed by the film’s allusions to KILLER’S KISS, LOLITA and SPARTACUS. And implicitly warned the cocky and confident young Kubrick to be careful, lest a film too controversial caused the usually placid audiences of the world to rise up en masse against him like the usually placid birds of the town of Bodega Bay, CA rose up en masse to attack the Douglas resembling and implicitly Kubrick linked Mitchell “Mitch” Brenner-played by Rod Taylor-his mother, the implicitly Old Hollywood linked and Charlotte evoking Lydia Brenner–fittingly played by Old Hollywood veteran Jessica Tandy-the implicitly New Hollywood linked and Lolita evoking blonde Melanie Daniels-fittingly played by brash newcomer Tippi Hedren-and the rest of the shocked and confused townspeople of the picturesque coastal town.
For his part, with its allusions to LOLITA and SPARTACUS-complete with the return of composer Alex North from the latter-Joseph L. Mankiewicz implicitly roasted Kubrick and his film art in the symbolic form of Marc Antony and Queen Cleopatra-played by Burton and Taylor, respectively-in the allegorical film CLEOPATRA (1963), a ridiculously long and turgid four hour schlockbuster released on June 12, 1963 that almost singlehandedly destroyed Old Hollywood. Giving Kubrick good reason to don the MADcap and the co-writer/director/producer hats and gleefully roast Mankiewicz and Old Hollywood when he teamed up again with Sellers, Sterling and LOLITA editor Anthony Harvey to implicitly and gleefully subvert and mock the blockbuster and the truly MAD doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) that prevailed in genocidal American military “thinking” in his next darkly humourous and black and white allegorical indie docufeature film, the FEAR AND DESIRE evoking DR. STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB (1964), released on January 29, 1964 and inspired by the allegorical Peter Bryant novel Red Alert aka Two Hours To Doom (1958) and coming across as a more black humoured and macabre version of the allegorical and implicitly Old Hollywood roasting Stanley Kramer film IT’S A MAD, MAD, MAD, MAD WORLD (1963), which implicitly roasted Stanley and Christiane Kubrick in the implicit form of Melville and Monica Crump-played by Sid Caesar and Edie Adams, respectively.
you can’t fight in here.
This is the War Room!”
Curiously, after a short and VO accompanied prologue shot from an airplane over cloud shrouded moutains in northern Russia that revealed that the Soviets had created a mysterious “Doomsday Machine” in this remote and inaccessible location, the opening titles-including the first one, which proudly declared for the first time that the film was “…A STANLEY KUBRICK PRODUCTION”-played over an implicitly copulatory sequence also shot from an airplane that saw an United States Army Air Force (USAAF) refueling plane refuelling a B52 bomber to the sound of soft, tender and string filled symphonic music that evoked similar music that accompanied the opening titles sequence of LOLITA. This link of the two films was reaffirmed when Sellers reappeared as the Disney and Wood jr. resembling Royal Air Force (RAF) Group Captain Lionel Mandrake. Significantly, RAF Group Captain Mandrake’s possible link to Wood jr. was affirmed when he was soon ordered over the phone by USAAF General Jack D. Ripper-played by Hayden-to transmit Plan R to all U.S. B52 bomber crews in the air, for Plan R evoked the legendary and alien Plan 9 to animate the dead on Earth seen and heard in PLAN 9 FROM OUTER SPACE.
At this point, the MADcap film resembled a live action MAD movie roast that implicitly and satirically likened the frantic but doomed attempts of older film artists at the time like Disney, Ford, Hitchcock, Mankiewicz, John Huston and Sam Peckinpah to create and release full colour blockbuster hits for the studios like CLEOPATRA, SPARTACUS and 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA that would appeal to young Boomer audiences and lure them away from their beloved television sets, rock and roll, junk food, comic books-and MAD magazines-and back to the struggling cinemas to the equally doomed and tragicomic attempts of RAF Group Captain Lionel Mandrake, the implicitly Ford linked B52 bomber pilot Major T.J. “King” Kong-his nickname and surname fittingly linking the film to cinematic blockbuster beasts, and played by Slim Pickens-the Johnson evoking and implicitly Hitchcock linked Soviet ambassador Alexej de Sadesky-played by Peter Bull-the implicitly Huston linked Colonel “Bat” Guano-played by Keenan Wynn-and the implicitly Mankiewicz linked General Buck Turgidson-played by George C. Scott-to prevent the truly MADcap machinations of the implicitly Samuel Fuller linked Gen. Jack D. Ripper-his insane orders evoking Gen. Mireau’s attempt to order his artillery to fire on his troops in PATHS OF GLORY-from setting off a world destroying nuclear war between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. throughout the film. The military men and politicians joining Gen. Turgidson, a frustrated, harried and implicitly Cecil B. DeMille linked Prasident Merkin Muffley-also played by Sellers-and a Stan “the Man” Lee resembling and possibly linked Doctor Strangelove-also played by Sellers-in the War Room reaffirmed that implication, as some resembled older film artists like Louis B. Mayer, D.W. Griffith and Fritz Lang. This reminded us that some of the Senators in the Roman Senate in SPARTACUS also resembled and were implicitly linked to prominent members of the Hollywood film art community at the time like Brando, Burton, Fisher and Hitchcock.
Indeed, nothing summed up this desperate and doomed quest of Old Hollywood to excite the enthusiasm of young audiences with a big blockbuster hit than the sight of the whooping and hollering and cowboy hat wearing Major Kong riding a nuclear bomb down onto its Soviet target at the end of the film, a falling nuclear bomb and the apocalyptic chaos it unleashed that not only presciently presaged the end of the blockbuster obsessed Old Hollywood era but also ominously anticipated the falling helicopter of the TZ disaster and the apocalyptic chaos unleashed by the deadly crash. The multi-nuclear orgasmic sight brought the film full technosexual circle, recalling the sight of the opening titles playing over a gas refuelling plane as it copulated with a B-52 bomber at the beginning of the film. However, while implicitly lampooning the desperate attempts of the more established Old Hollywood film artists to connect with youthful Boomer audiences so as to continue scoring blockbuster hits in DR. STRANGELOVE, Kubrick clearly wondered if it was possible to actually pull off this feat with a new style of film art that would affirm that “…commercial success was perfectly compatible with thematically and/or formally challenging films.” 2
And so Godard implicitly approved of LOLITA, for he allowed the implicitly Kubrick linked Franz-played by Sami Frey-to survive the botched robbery that killed his partner Arthur-implicitly linked to James B. Harris, producer of LOLITA and SPARTACUS, and played by Claude Brasseur-and flee with Odile-played by Karina-at the end of the LOLITA cadenced allegorical indie docufeature film BANDE A PART aka BAND OF OUTSIDERS (1964), released on July 29, 1964. And so Sergio Leone implicitly linked Kubrick to an unhappy but steadfast Union officer-played by Aldo Giuffre-in the allegorical indie docufeature artbuster THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY (1966), a film released on December 23, 1966 whose implicit Kubrick addressing intent was affirmed by allusions to PATHS OF GLORY. And so University of Southern California (USC) film school student George Lucas jr. implicitly linked Kubrick to a rebellious underground world citizen THX 1138-played by Don Nachtsheim-whose successful escape from his depressing and suppressing underground world implicitly symbolized the hope of Lucas that Kubrick would successfully escape from the Cold War doom and gloom that caused him to make the MADcap but depressing and world destroying DR. STRANGELOVE: OR HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB. And so Arthur Penn and company implicitly roasted Kubrick and LOLITA in their allegorical indie docufeature film BONNIE AND CLYDE (1967), released on August 4, 1967.
Indeed, the homicidal and Humbert evoking outlaw robber Clyde Barrow-played by Warren Beatty-his equally murderous and Lolita evoking sidekick Bonnie Parker-played by Faye Dunaway-Clyde’s gun blasting and Nabokov evoking brother Buck Barrow-played by Gene Hackman-Buck’s violence and deploring and Charlotte evoking wife Blanche Barrow-played by Estelle Parsons-their dimwitted, equally violent and Neuman evoking accomplice C.W. Moss-played by Michael J. Pollard-and C.W.’s outraged, law abiding and Hitchcock evoking father Ivan Moss-played by Dub Taylor-affirmed the film’s implicit link to LOLITA and implicit interest in roasting Kubrick. Thus, given that the Hitchcock resembling and implicitly linked Ivan Moss helped Texas Ranger, Captain Frank Hamer-played by Denver Pyle-and the rest of the pursuing police trap and gun down Bonnie and Clyde, in the end, Penn implicitly hoped that the next film of Hitchcock would triumph over Kubrick. Indeed, the fact that the license on the final stolen car that Bonnie and Clyde drove to their doom had the license 3-6126 affirmed the film’s implicit interest in Kubrick, for the license reminded us that LOLITA was released in 1962. The film’s allusions to DR. STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB and THE BIRDS reaffirmed the film’s implicit Kubrick addressing intent.
Luckily for Kubrick, the demise of his film art and himself did not happen, for he did succeed in creating a new style of film art when he donned the co-writer/director/producer hats and teamed up with LOLITA distributor MGM to fuse the fearless film art for film art’s sake philosophy of LOLITA and DR. STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB with the blockbuster size and scope of SPARTACUS to create the allegorical and Ozian themed indie docufeature artbuster 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), released on April 2, 1968 and inspired by the allegorical indie docufiction short story “The Sentinel” (1951) by co-screenwriter Arthur C. Clarke.
“Eighteen months ago,
the first evidence
of intelligent life off the Earth
Significantly, the film began with a short prologue that saw the moon, Earth and sun align in cosmic harmony to the swelling and stirring sound of the opening of the allegorical Richard Strauss “tone poem” “Also Sprach Zarathustra” (1896) while, fittingly, three opening titles flashed on the screen, the second proudly asserting that the film was “…A STANLEY KUBRICK PRODUCTION.” Then, equally fittingly, given that a blockbuster hit that set off a nightmarishly exuberant and multiply erupting nuclear armageddon that killed most of the people and audiences of Earth and forced the few survivors to begin anew ended DR. STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB, 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY began with a Dawn Of Man segment filled initially with multiple staccato shots of a nuclear explosion evoking sun rising in the eastern skies over barren and post-apocalyptic Earth evoking desertscapes that evoked those seen in FLYING PADRE and SPARTACUS. Slowly, these establishing shots began focussing on tribes of primitive humans fighting amongst themselves in this desolate desertscape, fighting that fittingly evoked the fighting that had broken out between the film artists of Old and New Hollywood with the release of BONNIE AND CLYDE. Given that the side led by the implicitly Scarecrow linked Moonwatcher-played by Daniel Richter-were inspired by a towering and television evoking black rectangular monolith to create the bone weapons needed to kill and defeat the other tribe, Kubrick implied his belief that the television inspired young Boomer film artists of New Hollywood would use all of the new film and digital technology to defeat Old Hollywood and bring young audiences back to the Temple Theatre with innovative and hi-tech artbusters like 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY.
Indeed, in the allegorical Clarke indie docufiction novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, which was based on an early version of the film’s screenplay, there was a greater implicit link of the first monolith to television. For the first monolith was not black and opaque but crystal, and hypnotizing colour shapes and images swirled over its surface, probing and teaching Moonwatcher’s tribe of early humans (Clarke, pp. 10-22). Thus, the sight of Moonwatcher being inspired by the monolith to create and use a bone weapon and throwing his bone hammer into the air after defeating the other tribe, and the shot of the falling weapon cutting to a shot of a nuclear weapon armed satellite orbiting Earth in a future where space exploration was correctly anticipated to be driven by private corporations rather than public governments, affirmed the implication that Kubrick expected New Hollywood to use all of the new technology at its disposal to defeat Old Hollywood.
In addition, the scary appearance and the intimidating bone weapon used by Moonwatcher and the Earth bound home of his early human tribe evoked the implicitly Earth linked Scarecrow-played by Ray Bolger-in the allegorical and implicitly Prime Minister William King and Wicked Third Reich roasting Victor Fleming film THE WIZARD OF OZ (1939), confirming the Ozian theme of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. For their part, the metal machines that the rising bone weapon led to-including a half completed orbiting satellite whose two wheels spun in space like two film projection reels-dry and frozen moon, and silver spacesuits of William Sylvester’s Old Hollywood linked Doctor Heywood Floyd-indeed, his name looked and sounded like Hollywood Old-and his lunar companions linked the second half of the Dawn of Man segment to the equally dry, frozen, metal, silver and implicitly Water linked Tin Man-played by Jack Haley. For their part, the orange spacesuit and the courageous and David versus Goliath evoking battle of the implicitly Lucas linked mission commander Doctor David Bowman-played by Keir Dullea-with the all seeing and all knowing onboard computer Heuristic Algorithmic 9000 aka HAL 9000-who started off implicitly linked to Glinda the Good before slowly but surely and implicitly transforming into HEL 9000, the Wicked Witch of the West, and voiced by Douglas Rain-on the fittingly flying broomstick shaped USSC Discovery I spaceship linked the Mission to Jupiter segment to the implicitly Fire linked Cowardly Lion-played by Bert Lahr.
Last but not least, the sight of Commander Bowman floating away from the USSC Discovery I in a pod before blasting off into hyperspace on an intergalactic voyage that led to mysteriously palatial and futuristic Emerald City like digs in the closing Jupiter and Beyond segment of the film evoked the implicitly Air linked and Emerald City ruling Great Oz-played by Frank Morgan-drifting away in his hot air balloon at the end of THE WIZARD OF OZ, and the tornado that carried Kansas waif Dorothy Gale-played by Judy Garland-and her canine companion Toto from Kansas to Oz at the beginning of THE WIZARD OF OZ. A fitting link to Dorothy, setting us up for the sight of a transformed and evolved Starchild Bowman returning to Earth at the end of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY like a transformed Dorothy returned to Kansas at the end of THE WIZARD OF OZ in an unusally "happy" and triumphant end to a Kubrick film or artbuster. Or was the Bowman Starchild simply another pawn, this time of extraterrestrials, thus implying that Kubrick believed that even in space mankind would simply be pawns of more powerful forces?
Significantly, the segments of the film and the evolution of Bowman into Starchild-an evolution that was again linked to television in 2001: A Space Odyssey, for the hotel suite Bowman found himself living in after his intergalactic journey was created from television programs from Earth (Clarke, 287)-affirmed the implicit hope of Kubrick that film art would evolve into a new artbuster era that combined the best of art and blockbuster films. For the mostly silent and speechless first half of the Dawn of Man segment evoked the silent era of film art; the eagerly talkative and music supported second half of the Dawn of Man segment evoked the talkie era of film art; the artsy Mission to Jupiter segment evoked the artsy post-WWII film era; while the Jupiter and Beyond segment anticipated the psychedelic Sixties era of film, implying that Kubrick was meditating on the history of film art as well as trying to kick off a new and transformed Starchild film artist era of artbuster film art free from the disturbing and television evoking presence of Sentinel monoliths in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY.
Alas, the august Academy was so impressed they awarded 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY one whole Oscar for Best Visual Effects, which Kubrick shared as he had helped work on the f/x. For his part, Coppola and Lucas teamed up to implicitly roast the cult of Kubrick that had begun due to the success of his indie film art in the form of a roast of the cult of OMM in the twilit and allegorical indie docufeature film THX 1138 (1971), a film released on March 11, 1971 whose implicit Kubrick roasting intent was affirmed by the film’s allusions to SPARTACUS and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. As for Kubrick, he implicitly replied to Penn and BONNIE AND CLYDE when he donned the writer/director/producer hats and rejoined 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY cinematographer John Alcott and Warner Brothers on his next eerily twilit and allegorical indie docufeature artbuster A CLOCKWORK ORANGE (1971), released on December 19, 1971 and inspired by the allegorical and implicitly Burroughs roasting Anthony Burgess novel A Clockwork Orange (1962).
Indeed, after three quick opening titles, the second of which proudly proclaimed the film “…A STANLEY KUBRICK PRODUCTION” in white letters on an azure background to implicitly reaffirm how passionately committed Kubrick was to his new artbuster path, the camera slowly pulled back from the wayward and exuberantly over the top film long VO narration providing young futuristic hooligan Alexander “Alex” DeLarge-played by Malcolm McDowell-and his equally wayward “droogs” Dim, Georgie and Pete-played by Warren Clarke, James Marcus and Michael Tarn, respectively-as they enjoyed an early evening drink at the Molokova Milkbar. Significantly, the feisty foursome resembled and were implicitly linked throughout the film to Penn, Blanche, Buck and C.W. from BONNIE AND CLYDE, immediately and implicitly affirming that Kubrick was addressing Penn and that film throughout A CLOCKWORK ORANGE. The furiously scowling portrait of Beethoven on the wall of the apartment bedroom of Alex affirmed that implication, for it evoked the equally scowling and implicitly Hitchcock linked Mr. Ivan Moss-played by Dub Taylor-at the end of BONNIE AND CLYDE. The Dirty Thirties headgear, including a black beret worn by Pete that evoked the black beret worn by Bonnie, and the footage from the allegorical Leni Riefenstahl documentary film TRIUMPH OF THE WILL (1935) reaffirmed the film’s interest in BONNIE AND CLYDE.
However, Kubrick also implied that he had mixed feelings about Penn and BONNIE AND CLYDE. For, while Alex ended up being betrayed and attacked by his droogs one fateful night after killing the implicitly Pauline Kael linked Miss Weathers aka the Cat Woman-apparently in retaliation for Kael’s exuberant review of BONNE AND CLYDE, and played by Miriam Karlin-and then arrested by the police, brought to trial, found guilty and sent to prison, it was noticeable that he shrugged off the violent film aided Ludovico Treatment that was supposed to cure him of violent tendencies that he endured in prison in order to secure an early parole and ended the film just as violent and rapacious as he started. Thus, Kubrick implied that while irritated that BONNIE AND CLYDE implicitly roasted LOLITA and himself and was gleefully returning the favour in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, he also implied that he was pleased that he had been roasted by an excellent film created by a talented indie film artist. Kubrick also implied that he was not just roasting the film art altering bloody violence of BONNIE AND CLYDE but was resigned to the fact that it was now here to stay, given that A CLOCKWORK ORANGE was an even more violent and sexually explicit film. And another eerily prescient and twilit film, given that the number 655231 that was assigned to Alex during his sojourn in prison also anticipated the even more embattled and dread allegorical Zone Wars that broke out between film artists world wide after the July 23, 1982 TZ disaster. Indeed, a 236 hidden within the number almost eerily and presciently anticipated the 23782 date of the TZ disaster.
Curiously, A CLOCKWORK ORANGE also often evoked early allegorical David Cronenberg films like STEREO (1969) and CRIMES OF THE FUTURE (1970). The cinematic Ludovico Treatment affirmed the implicit interest in young Cronenberg, for the treatment evoked the treatment used to develop the latent extrasensory powers (ESP) of select young subjects in STEREO. The letters on the license plate of the stolen Durango 95 sports car that DeLarge and his droogs used to drive off in search of more ultraviolence at the beginning of the film affirmed the implicit additional Cronenberg addressing intent of A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, for the letters “DAV” almost spelled Dave or David. The resemblance of the writer Mr. Frank Alexander-played by Patrick Magee-to Marshall McLuhan also implicitly affirmed Kubrick’s interest in a Canadian film artist linked to Toronto. In addition, the resemblance of the police inspector-played by Lindsay Campbell-who oversaw the arrest of Alex to Rene Levesque; the fact that the two prisoners who admired DeLarge at the prison Sunday church service looked like living caricatures of Leonard Cohen and Irving Layton; and the resemblance to then Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau of the political advisor who trailed Freddie, the Ludovico Treatment embracing Minister of the Interior-played by Anthony Sharp-also affirmed Kubrick’s implicit interest in and approval of the first allegorical indie docufeature film art of Cronenberg.
For his part, Sidney Lumet implicitly sternly replied to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE and reminded Kubrick that violence in reality and in film art should not be taken lightly in a moving look at Sean Connery’s Sergeant “Johnny” Johnson, a British police detective so haunted and traumatized by violence experienced during his decades with the police that he finally snapped and beat Ian Bannen’s Kenneth Baxter, a suspect in a girl sexual assault case, to death during an interrogation in the allegorical docufeature film THE OFFENCE (1973), a film released on January 11, 1973 whose implicit allegorical intent was affirmed by allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE and the presences of a Kubrick resembling and implicitly linked Chief Inspector named Lawson-played by Ronald Radd-and of a Burroughs resembling and implicitly linked Detective Superintendent named Cartwright-played by Trevor Howard. Significantly, that same year, Landis also implicitly likened Kubrick’s cinematic attack on New Hollywood to the tragicomic and film long homicidal rampages of a revived and implicitly Kubrick linked early human-played by Landis-straight out of the first part of the Dawn of Man segment of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY in the gleefully satirical and twilit and allegorical indie docufeature film SCHLOCK (1973), a film released on April 11, 1973 that was as exuberantly bad as PLAN 9 FROM OUTER SPACE, making Landis the new Wood jr., though apparently without the fondness for dressing as a woman.
As for Lucas, he implicitly roasted Kubrick as a used car salesman-played by John Brent-in the allegorical, openly Ozian themed and implicitly Ralph Bakshi roasting indie docufeature film AMERICAN GRAFFITI (1973), a surprisingly successful film released on August 1, 1973 that established Lucas as the new reigning box office King. Thus, Kubrick must have taken comfort from the allegorical and implicitly Coppola and Lucas roasting Richard Rush indie docufeature film FREEBIE AND THE BEAN (1974), a film released on December 25, 1974 which implicitly linked Coppola and Lucas to two free wheeling, independent, quarrelsome and riotous San Fran police detectives, Freebie and the Bean-played by James Caan and Alan Arkin, respectively-whose madcap misadventures and loose interpretation of the law got them in nothing but trouble throughout the frenetic and hilarious film.
Kubrick would also have been pleased by the implicitly roasting Coppola and Lucas received in the allegorical Huston docufeature film THE MAN WHO WOULD BE KING (1975), released on November 27, 1975. For this tragicomic tale of two nineteenth century British adventurers, Peachy Carnehan and Danny Dravot-played by Michael Caine and Sean Connery, respectively-who were destroyed by their attempt to take over and rule their own independent country north of the India of the British Raj, in the end, implicitly warned Coppola and Lucas that their attempt to create their own successful and independent American Zoetrope film studio north of Hollywood in San Francisco would also end in harrowing failure. As for Kubrick, he took off his MADcap again and got more restrained and thoughtful when he donned the writer/director/producer hats and rejoined Alcott, Magee, Sharp, Milena Canonero and Jan Harlan-costume designer and assistant producer, respectively, on A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-Pat Roach and Philip Stone-who played a bouncer in the Korova Milkbar and Mr. DeLarge, respectively, in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-and Warner Brothers-distributor of A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-on his next twilit and allegorical indie docufeature artbuster BARRY LYNDON (1975), released on December 11, 1975 and inspired by the allegorical William M. Thackeray novel The Memoirs Of Barry Lyndon (1844).
“The fact is,
the young monkey’s fallen in love
Curiously, after kicking off with an orange and white Warner Brothers logo that evoked the orange and white opening and closing titles of A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-a fitting link, given that this latest Kubrick indie docufeature artbuster was about another rebellious and wayward young feller-there followed four opening titles, the first of which proudly proclaimed “…a film by STANLEY KUBRICK”. Then a familiar film long narrative VO-this time performed by Michael Hordern-so common to the film art of Kubrick began, a film long VO that accompanied a duel with pistols in an ironically peaceful rural field in Ireland that led to the death of an Irishman named Barry-played by Al Smithee. Significantly, this unexpected death led to the naïve and foolish Eighteenth Century Irish country boy known initially as Redmond Barry of Barryville-and played by Ryan O’ Neal-being raised by his mother-played by Marie Kean-reminding us that Landis was also raised by his mother after losing his father early in life. Thus, Kubrick implied that young Barry’s naïve and tragicomic film long quest for fortune and glory after the death of his father symbolized the equally tragicomic quest of the naïve and foolish Landis for cinematic fortune and glory throughout BARRY LYNDON.
Indeed, the fact that a wealthy and Hitchcock resembling uncle named Brady-played by the fittingly surnamed Liam Redmond-watched over Barry and his mother after the death of his father reaffirmed the implicit link between Barry and Landis, implicitly linking Barry to film art and reminding us that a wealthy uncle of Landis persuaded his mother to move the two from Chicago to Los Angeles so he could watch over them after the death of the father of Landis. In addition, a love scene early in the film between Barry and his ambitious and beautiful young Irish cousin Nora Brady-played by Gay Hamilton-evoked a similar love scene between Schlock and his heart’s love Mindy-played by Eliza Garrett-in SCHLOCK, reaffirming the link between Barry and Landis. The sight of a seasoned military veteran named Captain Grogan-played by Godfrey Quigley-taking Barry under his wing as his second in a duel that almost killed Nora’s Wood jr. resembling and possibly linked English fiancée Captain John Quin-a tragicomically fitting link that implied that Kubrick felt that Landis was taking over the title of Worst Director Ever, and played by Leonard Rossiter-also affirmed the implicit link of Barry and Landis, reminding us that seasoned Hollywood veteran George Folsey jr. also took Landis under his wing and produced his first films.
Curiously, soon after fleeing his mother and home on horseback to escape arrest after the illegal duel, Barry was relieved of his money by the notorious and implicitly Ford linked highwayman Capt. Feeney and his implicitly Lucas linked apprentice son, Seamus-played by Arthur O’Sullivan and Billy Boyle, respectively. At this point, Barry’s tragicomic misadventures truly began, with the penniless young heller joining an Irish regiment in the British Army. Here he soon fought and won a boxing match that evoked those seen in DAY OF THE FIGHT and KILLER’S KISS with the much bigger and fittingly named officer Toole-played by Roach-a bloody battle that also evoked Moonwatcher’s fight with a rival from another group of apemen in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. Here in the British Army, Barry also soon met and was taken under his wing again by Capt. Grogan. However, after Capt. Grogan was killed in a Seven Years War battle, Barry was on his own again, a period in which fell in and out of the Prussian Army and spent some time learning the illicit trade with notorious and ambiguously linked card cheat Chevalier de Balibari-played by Magee.
However, Barry left behind the Chevalier and the card cheat life when he managed to ingratiate himself with and marry the wealthy, titled, Varinia and Charlotte Haze evoking and implicitly Old Hollywood linked widow Lady Lyndon-played by Marisa Berenson-and take on the title of Barry Lyndon. Significantly, this titled and tragicomic new stage of Redmond’s journey-a stage in which he developed a fondness for the allegorical Ludovico Cordi painting “The Adoration Of The Magi” (1605), linking Redmond to Alex via the Ludovicto Treatment in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-also affirmed the implicit link of Barry Lyndon to Landis, as Lady Lyndon resembled and was implicitly linked to his wife Deborah Nadoolman Landis. The sight of Barry Lyndon being gunned down in the end in a duel by Lady Lyndon’s outraged son Lord Bullingdon-played by Dominic Savage as a boy and by Leon Vitali as a young adult, respectively-reaffirmed the implicit link between Landis and Lyndon, reminding us that Schlock was also gunned down at the end of SCHLOCK. The final duel also evoked the duel fought between Antonius and Spartacus at the end of SPARTACUS and brought BARRY LYNDON full circle, reminding us that the film began with Barry Lyndon’s father being shot dead in a duel.
Thus, in the quick rise, fall and disappearance of the rebellious, disrespectful, naïve, foolish, immature, ambitious but greedy, untalented, lazy, lusty and unstable Barry Lyndon, a fall aided by the establishment of the era, which crushed him like the Roman establishment crushed Spartacus, Kubrick implied his hope that the equally disrespectful, naïve, foolish, immature and untalented Landis would also destroy himself if he persisted in his delusion that he was a film artist and disappear as quickly as Barry Lyndon, in the end, a fall and disappearance of another pawn of glory helped along by Kubrick, as BARRY LYNDON was another fine and memorable artbuster whose every naturally lit frame was a painting that easily obliterated SCHLOCK. Alas for Kubrick, audiences, film art, film artists and the Temple Theatre, Landis somehow managed to stick around despite the fact that SCHLOCK was a flop, and lead film art straight into the Twilight Zone. In addition, Kubrick also implicitly and more gently roasted Lean, Spielberg and Volker Schlondorff in the forms of the the unswerving Reverend Samuel Runt, Lieutenant Jonathan Fakenham and Prussian Captain Potzdorf-played by Murray Melvin, Jonathan Cecil and Hardy Kruger, respectively-in the film.
Significantly, BARRY LYNDON won four Oscars for Best Adapted Musical Score, Best Art/Set Design, Best Cinematography and Best Costume Design, implying that the Academy was impressed with the artbuster philosophy. Perhaps impressed by how Alcott and Kubrick made every frame of BARRY LYNDON look like a moving painting, New Hollywood abruptly left behind its art for art’s sake and low budget beginnings and also implicitly embraced the big budget allegorical artbuster. Indeed, the eerily twilit and allegorical and implicitly Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau roasting Spielberg docufeature artbuster CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND (1977) and the allegorical, BARRY LYNDON evoking and implicitly Cronenberg toasting and Lucas roasting Sir Ridley Scott indie docufeature artbuster THE DUELLISTS (1977) both made clear that indie film artists and New Hollywood become eager converts to the artbuster cause of Kubrick. This mass embrace of the artbuster ended the war between Old and New Hollywood as it united the high artistic ideals of New Hollywood with the populist and commercial goals of Old Hollywood, sweeping away the rift between the two Hollywoods to create one fused, united and artbustin’ Hollywood led by dedicated and unswerving practitioners like Sir Scott and followers like Luc Besson, Kathryn Bigelow, Tim Burton, James Cameron, Sofia Coppola, Richard Kelly and David Lynch to this day, no doubt to the satisfaction of Kubrick.
Significantly, Richard Donner implicitly linked Kubrick to the high flyin’, indomitable and mild mannered DAILY PLANET reportere Clark “Kal El” Kent aka “Superman”-played by Lee Quigley as a baby, Aaron Smolinski as a boy, Jeff East as a troubled teen and Christopher Reeve as an adult, respectively-and had him battle and defeat the implicitly Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau linked criminal mastermind Alexander “Lex” Luthor-played by Gene Hackman-in the eerily twilit and allegorical super satirical docufeature film SUPERMAN (1978), released on December 15, 1978 and inspired by a character created by Genial Jerry Siegel and Joltin’ Joe Shuster for Detective Comics (DC). For his part, Cronenberg implicitly and sympathetically hoped that Kubrick would continue to succeed with his indie artbuster dreams like the implicitly Kubrick linked race car driver Lonnie “Lucky Man” Johnson-played by William Smith-succeeded as both the head of an indie race car team and its top driver in the eerily twilit and allegorical indie docufeature film FAST COMPANY (1979), a film released on March 18, 1979 whose implicit Kubrick addressing intent was affirmed by the film’s allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, BARRY LYNDON, LOLITA, SPARTACUS and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. As for Spielberg, he implicitly linked Kubrick to indomitable indie P-40 Tomahawk fighter pilot “Wild” Bill Kelso-played by John Belushi-and fittingly had him first TKO the implicitly Screamin’ Stephen King linked Winowski-played by Ronnie McMillan-and then punch up and steal the motorcycle of U.S. Army dispatch rider Mizerany-played by Landis-in the exuberantly MADcap and eerily twilit, allegorical and implicitly New and Old Hollywood roasting docufeature film 1941 (1979), released on December 13, 1979.
Significantly, the following year saw the higher minded, Kubrick resembling and implicitly linked Lord Shingen Takeda-played by Tatsuya Nakadai-killed by an army sniper-played by Akihiko Sugizaki-and permanently replaced by his lower minded and lookalike security double-also played by Nakadai-in the allegorical Akira Kurosawa indie docufeature artbuster KAGEMUSHA aka THE SHADOW WARRIOR (1980), a film released on April 23, 1980 which implied that Kurosawa felt that the higher minded Kubrick who made films like SPARTACUS had been permanently replaced by the lower minded Kubrick who made films like LOLITA by 1980, an implication affirmed by the film’s allusions to BARRY LYNDON, SPARTACUS and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. The sight and sound of the security double presiding over the annihilation of the Takeda clan also implied that Kurosawa felt that Kubrick’s lower side had led him so astray that he too was doomed to be annihilated…and forgotten. As for Kubrick, he implicitly blasted Cronenberg when he donned the co-writer/director/producer hats and collaborated again with Alcott, Canonero, Harlan, Stone, Turkel, Vitali and Warner Brothers on the eerily twilit and allegorical indie “horrorshow” docufeature artbuster THE SHINING (1980), released on May 23, 1980 and inspired by the allegorical and implicitly Kubrick roasting King novel The Shining (1977), an ironically implicit interest in roasting Kubrick affirmed by the novel’s allusions to BARRY LYNDON, LOLITA, SPARTACUS and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY.
“And as far as my wife is concerned,
I’m sure she’ll be absolutely fascinated when I tell her. She’s a confirmed ghost story
and horror film addict.”
Significantly, the film began with a twilit helicopter shot of a tiny yellow Volkswagen bug driving along a spectacular but menacing and maze evoking mountain highway to the Overlook Hotel, a drive filled with light blue and digital evoking opening titles that drifted up the screen and disappeared starting with the first title, which stated succinctly “…A STANLEY KUBRICK FILM”. This sequence immediately affirmed the implicit Cronenberg addressing intent of THE SHINING, for this beginning evoked the equally spectacular but less menacing sight of Fast Company race team trucks rolling along an Albertan highway overshadowed by the Rockies at the beginning of and throughout FAST COMPANY. One of the two eerie and moody electronic pieces composed for the film by Wendy Carlos and Rachel Elkind that accompanied this visually stunning opening titles sequence also immediately affirmed the film’s implicit interest in Cronenberg, for this strange electronic composition evoked the equally eerie and moody electronic “score” composed by Cronenberg for CRIMES OF THE FUTURE and also sounded like the equally eerie electronic score composed by Howard Shore and heard that same year in the ominously twilit and allegorical Cronenberg indie docufeature film SCANNERS (1980).
This implicit interest in Cronenberg was reaffirmed at the Overlook Hotel, a hotel as huge, lavishly furnished and filled with art as the Lyndon family’s Castle Hackton in BARRY LYNDON. For the VW’s driver turned out to be the troubled and implicitly Cronenberg linked English teacher/writer John Daniel “Jack” Torrance-played by Jack Nicholson-who resembled the possibly Spielberg linked rival racer Gary “the Blacksmith” Black-played by Cedric Smith-in FAST COMPANY and whose English degree reminded us that Cronenberg had an English degree. In addition, the film’s allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE and to such allegorical Cronenberg indie docufeature films as CRIMES OF THE FUTURE, STEREO, SHIVERS (1975) and THE BROOD (1979), and the film’s Cronenberg evoking spare and minimal camera movements reaffirmed the implication that Kubrick was roasting Cronenberg in THE SHINING.
The Apollo 11 sweater worn at one point by Jack’s psychic and trance plagued son Danny Torrance-played by the curiously but fittingly named Danny Lloyd-reaffirmed the film’s implicit Cronenberg addressing intent, reminding us that the year of the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969 was the year of the release of STEREO, the first major Cronenberg film, and one as obsessed with ESP as THE SHINING. The resemblance of Overlook Hotel manager Stuart Ullman-his ominous name only one letter away from Bullman, and played by Barry Nelson-to Sir Scott also reaffirmed the Cronenberg addressing intent of the film, reminding us that Sir Scott had sympathetically reached out to the then embattled Cronenberg in the implicit form of equally embattled Napoleonic officer Armand D’Hubert-played by Keith Carradine-in THE DUELLISTS. The resemblance of the ghostly ex-caretaker Delbert Grady-played by Stone-to Hitchcock was also fitting, reminding us that the career of the creepy Hitch was ending just as that of the even more creepy Cronenberg was beginning.
Even the red and white package of Marlboros that Torrance liked to smoke affirmed his implicit link to a Canadian film artist, evoking the red and white national colours and Maple Leaf flag of Canada. A tiny maple leaf seen pinned to the red sweater of Danny late in the film as he experienced the start of the final showdown between his parents reaffirmed the interest in the Maple Leaf flag of Canada and the film’s implicit interest in a Canadian film artist. Last but not least, the presence of paintings by Alex Colville and Norval Morrisseau in the labyrinthine hallways and rooms of the Overlook Hotel-a huge, lonely, isolated and watchful labyrinth that evoked the equally watchful HAL in the equally labyrinthine, isolated and lonely Discovery I spacecraft in 2001: A SPACE ODYESSEY-and the bitterly cold and snowswept winter that the events of the film took place in reaffirmed the implicit link of Torrance to a Canadian film artist. Thus, with Torrance transformed into a inarticulately snarling, snorting and animal-like “manotaur”-rather than Juhani Pallasmaa’s minotaur 3-and freezing to death in the equally labyrinthine maze in front of the Overlook Hotel-as trapped in the maze as his yellow VW was in the drive along the maze-like highway to the Overlook at the beginning of the film-after trying to kill Danny and his wife Wendy-her name evoking a minor character named Wendy played by Mary Swinton in THE BROOD, and played by Shelley Duvall-at the end of the film, Kubrick implied that Cronenberg was not just freezing his creativity but destroying himself by choosing to create only allegorical horror feature films after a promising indie film art beginning with CRIMES OF THE FUTURE and STEREO.
Significantly, Kubrick used a mirror reflection of Torrance to create an implicit Evil Twin of the character to emphasize both that Torrance was parting with or had parted ways with reality and that he implicitly felt that Cronenberg had also lost his way by choosing to work in the horror genre, an use of mirror reflections to indicate that characters were parting or had parted with reality that was common in the films of Rush. This was a doubly fitting evocation of the film art of Rush, as Nicholson appeared in such allegorical Rush indie docufeature films as TOO SOON TO LOVE (1960), HELL’S ANGELS ON WHEELS (1967) and PSYCH-OUT (1967). Significantly, the first major use of this subtle dangerous reflection effect in THE SHINING was effectively combined with a zoom shot. For as Wendy brought a still sleeping Torrance his breakfast in bed one morning about half way through the film, a zoom away from Torrance slowly revealed that the audience had been watching a mirror reflection of this unexpected and loving breakfast service. Making the Torrance that was seen waking up to this breakfast service already the Dark Side “Johnny” we encountered later with the axe trying to kill Wendy and Danny. Indeed, the backwards letters on his t-shirt implicitly affirmed that he was no longer rational and now on a dark path that lead inexorably to equally irrational redrum.
Unusually though, even Torrance noticed this subtle visual effect while passionately embracing and kissing the initially beautiful and naked young ghost-played by Lia Beldam-of the guest who committed suicide in room 237, a beautiful young ghost who evoked the topless actress-played by Virginia Weatherell-who tormented Alex after his Ludovico Treatment in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE. For at one point Torrance looked up and over her shoulder and saw to his horror in the mirror behind her that his irrational Dark Side was kissing a rotting old woman-played by Billie Gibson. These nods to Rush in THE SHINING affirmed that Kubrick had been following the films of Rush and approved of their warnings to New Hollywood, especially in FREEBIE IN THE BEAN. Thus, Kubrick must have been pleased with the eerily and ominously twilit, allegorical and Ozian themed Rush indie docufeature artbuster THE STUNTMAN (1980), released on March 26, 1980.
For the film long battle between the young, Vietnam War scarred and implicitly Hopper and Scarecrow linked stuntman, Cam-played by Steve Railsback-and the manipulative, possibly homicidal, Great Oz director, Eli Cross-played by Peter O’Toole-on the set of the twilit and allegorical Cross film DEVIL’S SQUADRON (198?), implicitly evoked the battle between Old and New Hollywood that had been fought since the late Sixties. That this battle ended in a grudging acceptance, mutual admiration and commitment between the two men to definitely complete the allegorical Great War film within the film implicitly affirmed the hope of Rush that the equally great and pre-TZ disaster war between Old and New Hollywood was over with the commitment of both sides to the artbuster. Indeed, with the appearance of such allegorical artbusters as THE STUNTMAN, the Lynch indie moving painting THE ELEPHANT MAN (1980) and the allegorical and implicitly Lynch roasting Ken Russell indie docufeature artbuster ALTERED STATES (1980), the year of the release of THE SHINING was a good year for the artbuster.
Eerily, the Overlook Hotel’s fateful room 237-which evoked the less fateful Sandman Inn room 237 in FAST COMPANY-presciently pointed the way to the 23/07/1982 date of the TZ disaster in yet another ominous memory of the future, and one made more eerie by the fact that the haunted room was originally Room 217 in The Shining, but changed to the nonexistent room 237 by Kubrick as the owners of the Timberline Lodge in Mount Hood Territory in Oregon which was used for exteriors of the Overlook were worried that guests would never want to stay in Room 217 again after experiencing THE SHINING. 4 The sight of a young tuxedoed man wearing glasses who resembled a young Landis standing behind Torrance in the photo of the Fourth of July 1921 ball at the Overlook in the last image of the film also eerily pointed the way to the TZ disaster. How also eerily prescient that the opening exteriors of the Overlook Hotel were shot outside the Timberline Lodge on Mount Hood in Mount Hood Territory in northwest Oregon an hour and a half by car southeast of Portland, for Mt. Hood was approximately 3429 metres high, linking the film again to the fateful number 23. Thus, with these eerie omens of the twilit future, the shock of the TZ disaster and the dread allegorical Zone Wars that resulted were fittingly and implicitly addressed by Kubrick when he returned to the Temple Theatre.
Curiously, soon after the release of THE SHINING, Landis returned to the Temple Theatre to implicitly roast Harlan and Kubrick in the implicit form of Elwood and Jacob “Jake” Blues-played by Dan Akroyd and John Belushi, respectively-in the twilit and allegorical docufeature film THE BLUES BROTHERS (1980), a film released on June 20, 1980 whose implicit allegorical intent was affirmed by allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, KILLER’S KISS, SPARTACUS and THE KILLING. Then the film year implicitly ended first with Kubrick being implicitly linked again to mild mannered DAILY PLANET reporter Clark “Kal El” Kent aka “Superman”-played again by Reeve-who battled and eventually defeated the implicitly Coppola, Lucas and Marcia Lucas linked renegade Kryptonian trio Non, General Zod and Ursa-played by Jack O’Halloran, Terence Stamp and Sarah Douglas, respectively-in the eerily twilit and allegorical Donner and Richard Lester super satirical docufeature film SUPERMAN II (1980), released on December 4, 1980. Then the battle between Kubrick and Landis being gleefully and implicitly linked to the battle between burly and bearded Bluto and spinach powered Popeye-played by Paul L. Smith and Robin Williams, respectively-in the allegorical Robert Altman docufeature film POPEYE (1980), which was released on December 6, 1980 and which saw Duvall reappear as Popeye’s favourite goyle, the sweet and implicitly Deborah Landis linked Olive Oyl. A fitting implication, for the following year Landis again implicitly roasted Kubrick again and implied that the indie New York film artist was the one who was losing his humanity in the form of troubled American lycanthrope David Kessler-played by David Naughton-in the eerily and presciently twilit and allegorical indie docufeature film AN AMERICAN WEREWOLF IN LONDON (1981), released on August 21, 1981. An eerily and presciently twilit film, indeed, given that the TZ disaster occurred less than a year later and ended the New Hollywood era, changed film art forever, outraged audiences and film artists and kicked off a dread allegorical Zone War that has never ended.
As for Michael Moorcock, he implicitly linked Kubrick to the elderly and ailing Count Rickhardt “Ricky” Von Bek, lying alone in a bed like Bowman at the end of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY, reminiscing wistfully about his youthful days with Alexandra, Clara and Diana before, during and after the siege of the art loving, mythical, prosperous, storied and Hollywood cadenced city of Mirenburg, implying that Moorcock thought that the best years of Kubrick were in the past in the twilit and allegorical docufiction novel The Brothel In Rosenstrasse (1982), an implicit allegorical intent affirmed by the novel’s allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, BARRY LYNDON, LOLITA, PATHS OF GLORY, THE SHINING and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. The following year, Lester implicitly linked Kubrick again to mild mannered but indomitable DAILY PLANET reporter Clark “Kal El” Kent aka “Superman”-played again by Reeve-in the twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced super satirical docufeature film SUPERMAN III (1983), released on June 17, 1983. For his part, Peter Hyams implicitly affirmed that the world of film art was trapped in a twilit new era when he teamed up with Clarke, Dullea and Rain on the twilit, allegorical and computer generated imagery (CGI) enhanced docufeature artbuster 2010 (1984), released on December 7, 1984 and based on the allegorical Clarke indie docufiction novel 2010: ODYSSEY TWO (December 1982).
“The first part of the journey
is about to end.”
Curiously, the still photographs from 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY that accompanied the prelude that recapped the events of that wholly remarkable and stellar film for audiences evoked the still photograph of a 1921 Fourth of July party crowd at the Overlook Hotel that saw a happily smirking Torrance dressed to the nines in their midst that ended THE SHINING. This fitting evocation of the last film of Kubrick continued when 2010 began with a meeting between the implicitly Lucas linked Doctor Heywood Floyd-played by Roy Scheider-and the Hitchcock resembling and implicitly linked Soviet scientist Doctor Dimitri Moisevitch-played by Dana Elcar-at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of radio telescopes in Socorro, New Mexico. For this meeting evoked the fateful conversation between Torrance and the Hitchcock resembling, implicitly linked and insidious ghost of Grady in the bathroom of the Gold Room in THE SHINING, linking 2010 to the last film of Kubrick. A creepily ghostly evocation, indeed, for it anticipated Dr. Floyd’s meeting with the equally ghostly and multiple forms of Commander David Bowman-played again by Dullea-onboard the USSC Discovery I in orbit around Jupiter after Moisevitch helped Dr. Floyd be picked to be a part of the Soviet expedition to the gas giant to find out what happened to the American spaceship, its astronauts and HAL. Curiously, the scenes at the Floyd house before Dr. Floyd headed off to Jupiter and back on the Soviet spaceship, the Alexei Leonov, also evoked THE SHINING. For Caroline and young Christopher Floyd-played by Madolyn Smith and Taliesin Jaffe, respectively-evoked Wendy and Danny Torrance.
Curiously, Moisevitch also evoked de Sadesky of DR. STRANGELOVE, which fit well with the MADcap and Cuban Missile Crisis-style tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. over Honduras that led to tensions between the American and Soviet members onboard the Alexei Leonov during the second mission to Jupiter. Implicitly twilit tensions, for Dr. Floyd’s two American colleagues on the Alexei Leonov, computer expert Dr. S. Chandra and USSC Discovery II spaceship engineer Walter Curnow-played by Bob Balaban and John Lithgow, respectively-evoked CGI creator Edwin Catmull and eager mentor John Lasseter, while Soviet Commander Tanya Kirbuk, her co-pilot, Yuri Svetlanov and their cosmonaut colleague Maxim Brajlovsky-played by Helen Mirren, Vladimir Skomarovsky and Elya Baskin, respectively-evoked Kennedy, Landis and Spielberg, respectively. Thus, the sight of the CGI and hi-tech linked Americans helping the TZ disaster linked Soviets successfully pull off the second mission to Jupiter implied the hope of Hyams that the CGI championed by Catmull, Lasseter and Lucas would save film art and free it from any further TZ disaster-style film set disasters. Indeed, the presence of Lithgow as Curnow openly linked the film to the TZ disaster, as Lithgow played bugged out and gremlin plagued airplane passenger John Valentine in “Nightmare At 20,000 Feet”, the last twilit and allegorical Miller episode of TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE.
The sight and sound of the mysterious and again unseen extraterrestrials using the TMA-2 to collapse Jupiter into a new and smaller sun-Lucifer-in an explosive and CGI enhanced rebirth that ended the conflict between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. and turned the night on Earth into an uneasy twilight except for those months when the new sun was passing behind the old sun in its orbit also implicitly affirmed that Hyams was aware that a twilit and CGI enhanced new era of film art had been created by the equally explosive TZ disaster. Hyams also implied his belief that this twilit new era of CGI enhanced film art would no longer be dominated by Lucas despite his support for CGI. For the explosive destruction of Jupiter evoked the explosive destruction of the Death Moon at the end of the allegorical, CGI enhanced, Ozian themed and implicitly Spielberg roasting Lucas indie docufeature film STAR WARS EPISODE IV: A NEW HOPE (1977), and the twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced, Ozian themed, Lucas executive produced and implicitly Spielberg roasting Richard Marquand indie docufeature film STAR WARS EPISODE VI: RETURN OF THE JEDI (1983), signalling the end of the Skyrocking Lucas era and affirming the implicit interest in Lucas in 2010. And the implicit end of the film art of Spielberg, given that Brailovsky was sucked into the stargate and taken off onto a trip beyond the beyond when his EVA pod got too close to the second and larger monolith orbiting Jupiter.
However, with the film ending not with the safe arrival of the Alexei Leonov back in Earth orbit but on the primeval, monolith guarded and daylit brave new world of Europa, Hyams implied his hope that CGI enhancement would indeed one day free film art from the twilight and kick off a brave new world of daylit film art. Curiously, one of the Soviet cosmonauts cheekily resembled and was implicitly linked to Kubrick, implying the conviction of Hyams that Kubrick would eagerly embrace and advance CGI enhanced film art perhaps so as to free film art from the Twilight Zone, given the memorable special and visual effects seen in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. For his part, Lynch clearly liked Smith’s appearance as Bluto in POPEYE, for he also used Smith to play the implicitly Kubrick linked Beast Rabban in the twilit, allegorical and implicitly Cronenberg supporting indie moving painting DUNE (1984), released on December 14, 1984.
Curiously, while Kubrick implicitly understood the importance of the TZ disaster, he showed no interest in CGI when he donned the co-writer/director/producer hats and teamed up again with Harlan, Vitali and Warner Brothers on his next twilit, allegorical and CGI free indie docufeature artbuster FULL METAL JACKET (1987), released on June 17, 1987 and inspired by the allegorical Gustav Hasford novel The Short-Timers (1979).
“Private Joker is silly
and he’s ignorant,
but he’s got guts,
and guts is enough!”
Curiously, after the Warner Brothers logo, the film began with an opening title proclaiming that the film was “…A STANLEY KUBRICK FILM” to the sound of the all too fittingly named Johnny Wright crooning “…goodbye my darling, hello Vietnam” from the allegorical and Tom T. Hall written tune “Hello Vietnam” (1965) as U.S. Marine barbers used razors to quickly shear off the hair of a group of new recruits heading into basic training before being sent to Vietnam like lambs to the slaughter at the beginning of the film immediately and implicitly affirmed that Kubrick understood that the TZ disaster, which had taken place during a recreated Vietnam War sequence in the Landis segment of TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE, was a seminal event that had ended a sunlit era of Skyrocking New Hollywood film art and created a troubled, haunted and twilit new world of film art. Not surprisingly, these new recruits resembled and were implicitly linked to film artists like Kubrick, Landis, Sir Scott, Woody Allen and James Cameron, also immediately and implicitly affirming that Kubrick was aware that the fact that the TZ disaster had occurred on a simulated Vietnam War village set linked all of the film artists of the era to Landis, the TZ disaster, the Vietnam War and films about the Vietnam War-and trapped them all in the Twilight Zone.
Ominously, shearing their fleece and kitting them out in the same drab green uniforms robbed the new recruits of their individual humanity, reminding us that Torrance lost his humanity by the end of THE SHINING. This prepared us for the recruits also being transformed into their murderous Dark Sides by their ironically surnamed senior supervising drill instructor Gunnery Sergeant Hartman-played by R. Lee Emery-during basic training. Indeed, to implicitly affirm that they were being transformed into their murderous Dark Sides like Torrance, the recruits were soon given new nicknames by Gunnery Sgt. Hartman, reminding us that Jack called himself Johnny not long before he descended into full incoherent and snarling Dark Side manotaur fury at the end of THE SHINING. These nicknames also affirmed the implicit interest in Landis in the film, for they evoked the nicknames given by Bluto to his fellow fraternity members of Delta House in ANIMAL HOUSE, an implicit interest in Landis reaffirmed by the film’s allusions to AN AMERICAN WEREWOLF IN LONDON and BARRY LYNDON. This implicit interest in Landis was also affirmed by the fact that one renamed recruit was not only the film’s VO narrator but the implicitly Landis linked Private J.T. Davis-played by Matthew Modine-who was dubbed “Joker” by Gunnery Sgt. Hartman after daring to mock the senior drill instructor with a John Wayne voice while standing at attention in the barracks on the first day of training, a bit of foolish insolence that openly linked Joker to American film art and film artists.
Significantly, Kubrick cut from implicitly film artist linked recruit to recruit before the barbers had shaved off all of their heads. This left each recruit with their heads shaved but the sides of their heads unshaved, evoking the samurai with the tops of their heads shaved and the sides left long in the samurai films of Kurosawa. Indeed, the final Marine barber looked like Kurosawa, affirming the film’s implicit interest in Kurosawa and reminding us that he had implicitly roasted Kubrick in KAGEMUSHA. Of all the new Marines, it was noticeable that only Private Leonard “Gomer Pyle” Lawrence-played by Vincent D’Onofrio-had a surname with eight letters like Kurosawa and looked like a heavy set sumo wrestler, implicitly linking him to Kurosawa. Indeed, Pte. Lawrence’s unexpected facility with long range rifle sniping affirmed his implicit link to Kurosawa, reminding us that a bullet from an army sniper killed the virtuous and implicitly Kubrick linked Lord Shingen in KAGEMUSHA.
Perhaps not surprisingly, given this implicit link to Kurosawa, Pte. Lawrence was constantly verbally abused by Gunnery Sgt. Hartman over the course of the harsh basic training that transpired over most of the first half of the film, a harsh basic training that evoked the equally harsh training the gladiators received from the equally abusive ex-gladiator Marcellus-played by Charles McGraw-at the gladiator school of Batiatus before the gladiators rose up under the inspiration of Spartacus and achieved their freedom at the beginning of SPARTACUS. As a choke hold Hartman put on Lawrence soon after meeting him evoked the infamous Force chokes of Darth Vader-played by David Prowse, who also played the bodyguard Julian in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-in the STAR WARS Classic Trilogy, the implication was that Hartman symbolized Lucas, who co-produced the international version of KAGEMUSHA with Coppola. Thus, with Lawrence shooting Hartman dead before killing himself at the end of the first half of FULL METAL JACKET, Kubrick symbolically killed Kurosawa and Lucas with one rifle, a link to Kurosawa ironically affirmed by the single note heard on the soundtrack during the killings, which evoked the trademark lone wooden percussion note heard at times on Kurosawa soundtracks.
Just as unsurprisingly, after implicitly taking care of Kurosawa and Lucas during the first half of the film, Kubrick then implicitly focussed on Landis in the form of Pte. “Joker” Davis, his implicitly Terry Gilliam linked photojournalist pal Pte. Rafterman-played by Kevyn M. Howard-and their implicitly Disney linked friend Payback-played by Kirk Taylor-and their tragicomic adventures covering the war in Vietnam for STARS AND STRIPES during the second half of FULL METAL JACKET. Indeed, the implicit link of Joker to Landis was reaffirmed by the line “…I’m gonna tear you a new asshole” that Animal Mother-played by Adam Baldwin-spat at him on their first meeting in the ruins of the city of Hue, for the threat evoked a similar line from the first twilit, allegorical and post-TZ disaster Landis docufeature film TRADING PLACES (1983).
Surprisingly, given the treatment Landis implicitly received in BARRY LYNDON, Joker survived his tour of duty in the TZ disaster haunted Vietnam War. Significantly, after she killed the implicitly Allen linked Cowboy-played by Arliss Howard-Joker was also allowed to finish off Ngoc Le’s wounded and Duvall resembling Viet Cong sniper that plagued the manotaur soldiers, who roared in inarticulate and despondent fury like Johnny at the end of THE SHINING when they were shot by her, in the war ravaged and labyrinthine ruins of the city of Hue at the end of the artbuster, a deadly sniper who was the third in a twilit trio of Vietnamese women met in part two after the two hookers-played by Papillon Soo Soo and Leanne Hong, respectively-the second hooker openly linked to film art. This killing grimly allowed Joker to fulfill the “BORN TO KILL” slogan written in black marker on the front of his helmet, implying either that Kubrick believed that the TZ disaster had revealed Landis to indeed be a killer or that Kubrick was symbolically allowing Landis to exorcise the disaster and move on or maybe both.
At any rate, Joker’s killing of the sniper also evoked the killing of a fleeing young female prisoner by the possibly Disney linked Sidney in FEAR AND DESIRE. A grimly fitting evocation, as Kubrick then allowed Joker to march off into the night with his head held high with his TZ disaster scarred but now equally liberated band of film artist brothers like they once marched on the parade square in basic training, all ironically singing the allegorical and Jimmie Dodd written Mickey Mouse Club theme. A tragicomic sight and sound that implied, in the end, the sarcastic and caustic conviction of Kubrick that once the TZ trial was over in 1987, a trial which had already ended by the time of the release of FULL METAL JACKET with Landis and his four co-defendants being found not guilty of manslaughter, the “shattered” Brotherhood of the Screen film artists of New Hollywood would head off to create Disney-style, CGI enhanced and product placement filled filmmercials for movie tie-in merchandise for their Hollywood studio puppet masters like good pawns of glory as unquestionably and uncomplainingly as the Brotherhood of Marines in the film fought and died in Vietnam for their military puppet masters in Washington. Thus, FULL METAL JACKET ended on a familiar implicitly outraged note in the film art of Kubrick, for the grimly ironic ending evoked the equally unquestioning ranks of legionnaires under the command of Crassus arranging themselves for battle against Spartacus and his army of rebellious gladiators and slaves at the end of SPARTACUS, the nightmarishly unquestioning obedience of Major Kong and the rest of the doomed crew of the lone unrecalled B-52 bomber of DR. STRANGELOVE and the equally unquestioning ranks of Irish raised British redcoats marching into volleys of French rifle fire in a skirmish in the Seven Years War in BARRY LYNDON. And the ants went marching one by one, indeed.
Fittingly, a month after the release of FULL METAL JACKET, Sidney J. Furie implicitly linked Kubrick again to mild mannered DAILY PLANET reporter Clark “Kal El” Kent aka “Superman”-played again by Reeve-and had him take on and take out the implicitly Cameron linked Nuclear Man-played by Mark Pillow-in the twilit and allegorical super satirical docufeature film SUPERMAN IV (1987), released on July 23, 1987. Then Clarke wrapped up the year by openly alluding to the Twilight Zone in the twilit and allegorical novel 2016: odyssey three (December 1987). As for Richard J. Lewis, the sight and sound of the Kubrick resembling and implicitly linked hermetic pop musician, Desmond Howl-played by Maury Chaykin-being inspired in part to complete his last opus after meeting a beautiful, young and Lolita evoking blonde named Claire-played by Cyndy Preston-implied the hope that Kubrick would also find the inspiration to complete and release his final opus in the twilit and allegorical indie docufeature film WHALE MUSIC (1994), a film released on September 8, 1994 whose implicit Kubrick addressing intent was affirmed by the film’s allusions to LOLITA and THE SHINING-complete with another Danny [played by Paul Gross] who haunted the film like a ghost in the Overlook Hotel-and a record manager named Kenneth Sexstone-played by Kenneth Welsh-who resembled and was implicitly linked to McDowell.
For his part, Robert Longo implicitly linked Kubrick to the digitally enhanced and also implicitly Scarecrow linked data carrier, Johnny Mnemonic-played by Keanu Reeves-and had him decapitate the gleefully violent and implicitly Landis linked yakuza assassin, Shinji-played by Denis Akiyama-at the end of the twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced and Ozian themed indie docufeature film JOHNNY MNEMONIC (1995), a film released on April 15, 1995 whose implicit Kubrick addressing intent was affirmed by the film’s allusions to KILLER’S KISS, THE SHINING, 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY and 2010. As for Quentin Tarantino, he had some macabre fun teaming up again with Harvey Keitel and kicking off the new film year by implicitly mocking the cinematic rivalry between Landis and Kubrick in the implicit form of the tragicomic rivalry between the equally quarrelsome and psychotically violent Richard “Richie” and Seth Gecko brothers-played by Tarantino and George Clooney, respectively-and also implicitly roasting Francis and Sofia (SCC) Coppola in the implicit forms of the Christian faith questioning father and less doubtful daughter pair of Jacob and Kate Fuller-played by Keitel and Lewis, respectively-all of whom were forced to endure a fateful night together battling hordes of undead vampires at the Titty Twister strip club just south of the El Paso border in sunny Mexico in the twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced and Tarantino written and co-executive produced Robert Rodriguez indie docufeature film FROM DUSK TILL DAWN (1996), an exuberant schlockfest released on January 1, 1996 that would have made Wood jr. green with envy.
Implicit interest from Lewis, Longo, Rodriguez and Tarantino that may have inspired Kubrick, for he soon donned the co-writer/director/producer hats and teamed up again with Harlan, Warner Brothers, Brian W. Cook-assistant director of THE SHINING-Les Tomkins-art director on THE SHINING and FULL METAL JACKET-and Roy Walker-production designer of THE SHINING-and returned to the Temple Theatre after his longest absence yet to implicitly address Luc Besson with his last twilit, allegorical and CGI free indie docufeature artbuster EYES WIDE SHUT (1999), released on July 13, 1999 and inspired by the allegorical Arthur Schnitzler novel Traumnovelle (Rhapsody-A Dream Novel) (1926).
Significantly, after five opening titles, the fourth title proclaiming that the film was “…A film by STANLEY KUBRICK”, the film began with a brief and well lit glimpse from behind of a red haired woman who turned out to be Alice Harford-played by Nicole Kidman-as she took off a Wicked black dress and revealed a beautiful young body while standing in what looked like a change room in front of four faux Grecian columns with a sliding and mirrored closet door to her sinister left that did not reflect her beautiful body as if she were another Vampire Girl and a cinema and theatre evoking red draped window with the blinds closed in front of her. Significantly, this surprising sight evoked the sight of legendary extraterrestrial warrioress Leeloo-played by Milla Jovovich-doffing her duds and changing into other clothes in the twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced, Ozian themed and implicitly Lucas toasting Besson indie animaction film THE FIFTH ELEMENT (1997), implicitly linking Alice to Jovovich or Leeloo. This cheeky sight also evoked a Kubrick photograph of an anonymous and equally naked and beautiful young female model also shot from behind being pondered by an older and implicitly salacious cartoonist named Peter Arno standing in front of her seen in the September 27, 1949 issue of LOOK magazine 5. Indeed, the magazine lying opened on the floor beneath Alice evoked the drawings scattered on the floor in the photograph. This linked Alice to visual art models, Graeco-Roman sculpture and to film, photographic and theatrical art, and implied that Kubrick was musing over his entire photographic and film artist life in EYES WIDE SHUT.
Kubrick implicitly reaffirmed that he was dwelling on his entire oeuvre soon after Alice and her husband, who turned out to be Doctor William “Bill” Harford-perhaps linked to Besson given the allusion to THE FIFTH ELEMENT, and played by Tom Cruise-finished dressing, left their painting filled apartment-most of them by Christiane and Katharine Kubrick-and taxied off to a Christmas party at the larger and even more well appointed apartment of Victor Ziegler-his name evoking Vic Morrow but resembling and implicitly linked to Allen, and played by Sydney Pollack-and his wife Illona-played by Leslie Lowe. For this creepy Christmas party evoked the Roaring Twenties New Year’s Eve party in the Gold Room at the Overlook Hotel-complete with formal bartenders-in THE SHINING. Curiously, this Christmas party also implied that the film was interested in Lynch on another level. For the pianist in the party’s jazz orchestra, Nick Nightingale-played by Todd Field-resembled Lynch and had a surname that evoked the allegorical and Lynch and Angelo Badalamenti written/composed Julee Cruise song “The Nightingale” (1990) in the twilit and allegorical Lynch telemoving painting series TWIN PEAKS (1990-91), which saw Kubrick implicitly linked to Victoria Catlin’s infamous Blackie O’Reilly, madam of the notorious Canadian brothel One-Eyed Jacks, for its name evoked an allegorical Marlon Brando film ONE-EYED JACKS (1961) that was almost created by Kubrick. A significant evocation, setting us up for a brothel evoking encounter to come.
Curiously, sexual encounters also almost occurred at the Ziegler gathering. For Alice was hit on and almost led away for a sexual encounter by the handsome, persistent, suave and Martin Scorsese resembling and implicitly linked attendee Sandor Szavost-played by Sky Dumont-while Bill was also hit on and almost led away for a sexual encounter by two beautiful, young, equally persistent and Elizabeth Hurley and Julianne Moore resembling models, Nuala and Louise-played by Stewart Thorndike and Taylor Gayle, respectively. However, while tempted, both Alice and Bill remained faithful to each other, and turned down the offers. Not so Ziegler, for he was discovered to have been fooling around upstairs with a beautiful, young and showgirl evoking woman named Amanda “Mandy” Curran-played by Julienne Davis-who almost died of a drug overdose in the equally spacious and well appointed Ziegler bathroom, a close call that Dr. Harford discovered when he was called away from the arms of the disappointed ladies to attend to Curran.
Unfortunately, an argument between Bill and Alice the night after the Ziegler Christmas party led both of them to question their fidelity to each other. This argument ended when the earnest young doctor was called away and off into the night to attend the death of a friend named Lou Nathanson-played by Kevin Connealy. After this professional visit, Dr. Harford walked the streets of New York brooding over Alice’s fidelity. Soon he met a young prostitute who called herself Domino-played by Vinessa Shaw-whose name fittingly prepared us for a masked encounter to come. Then Dr. Harford met up again with Nightingale at the Sonata Café where he played late night piano with his small jazz band. During their talk, which saw Stanley and Christiane Kubrick seated behind the two men at their own table, Nightingale affirmed his implicit link to Lynch by revealing that he lived in Seattle, reminding us that TWIN PEAKS was filmed in Washington State.
Nightingale also told Dr. Harford about a mysterious and implicitly salacious gathering at which he was going to be playing piano that night. This revelation led the good doctor to wheedle the address out of Nightingale, and then to go off and get the mask and costume needed for attendance. Significantly, Kubrick implicitly reaffirmed the personal nature of the film with the presence of the Kubrick resembling and implicitly linked costume store owner Milich-played by Rade Serbedzija-a cynical and cranky old character with a Lolita evoking teenaged daughter-played by Leelee Sobieski-who rented Harford his mask, cloak and tux for the partay, allowing Kubrick to roast himself one last time.
Then it was off by taxi to a strange orgiastic gathering in a castillian mansion that evoked the palace commandeered by Gen. Mireau in PATHS OF GLORY and the Lyndon castle in BARRY LYNDON, a mansion with gateposts with the round heads of chess pawns and the Hollywood cadenced and Sunset Boulevard evoking name of Somerset. Indeed, the implicit link of Somerset to Hollywood was affirmed by the red carpet in the foyer and the gold masks worn by the inner doormen of the castle, for the red carpet evoked the red carpet at film premiers and the annual Oscar ceremony and the gold masks evoked the gold face of the Oscar statuette. Curiously, the ironic password “Fidelio” that Dr. Harford used to gain admittance to the orgiastic gathering evoked the password “Calais” used by French soldiers to return safely to the French lines after a night patrol that lead to the death of one soldier, Private Lejeune-played by Jen Dibbs-the night before the attack on Ant Hill in PATHS OF GLORY, affirming that Kubrick was coming full embittered and resigned circle in EYES WIDE SHUT.
The gathering, which saw anonymous masked men making love to equally anonymous and masked young women who evoked showgirls like Curran also came across as the Dark Side “Devilmass” opposite of the Light Side Christmas gathering at the Ziegler apartment that began the film. For the labyrinthine and Temple Theatre evoking interior of the castle-like mansion had the same large, spacious, high ceilinged, well lit and expensively appointed rooms as the Ziegler apartment. Indeed, the sight and sound of a blindfolded Nightingale playing an electric piano or organ at the gathering openly linked the orgiastic gathering to the Ziegler party, implicitly affirming that it was the Dark Side of the opening Light Side party. The sight and sound of Dr. Harford being led away by one tall and beautiful young woman in a large blue showgirl headdress reaffirmed that implication. For not only did the sight remind us that Dr. Harford had been led away by Louise and Nuala at the Ziegler party, but the beautiful young woman with the showgirl figure also appeared to be Curran, the gorgeous young woman who almost OD’d in the Ziegler’s bathroom, in an implicitly open link to the Ziegler Christmas party.
Significantly, the strange masks worn by the anonymous male and female attendees evoked not only the masks that Alex and his droogs wore when they were engaged in some serious and rapacious ultraviolence in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, but also affirmed the film’s implicit interest in the Twilight Zone. For the weird masks of the male and female attendees, grotesque masks that implied that the orgy participants had become so at one with their manotaur and womanotaur Dark Sides that they had lost their humanity as well as their human faces, evoked the four equally grotesque masks that the Hitchcock resembling and implicitly linked Wilfred Harper and his wife, daughter and son, Emily, Paula and Wilfred jr., respectively-played by Milton Selzer, Virginia Gregg, Brooke Hayward and Alan Sues, respectively-were forced to don by the Good and art luving but dying family patriarch Jason Foster-played by Robert Keith-to reveal their true Dark Side natures…forever…in the allegorical Ida Lupino telefilm “The Masks” (1964) from the fifth season of the original TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series.
Indeed, the name of Dr. Bill Harford evoked that of Wilfred Harper, while his medical profession evoked the housecall that Doctor Samuel Thorne-played by Willis Bouchey-made to check up on Foster, affirming the implicit interest in that twilit telefilm in EYES WIDE SHUT. In fact, “The Masks” was alluded to on a number of occasions in EYES WIDE SHUT, including on the film’s soundtrack, for one of the piano pieces evoked a similar piece heard in “The Masks”. Significantly, the masks of Dr. Harford and implicitly that of Curran were the only ones at the gathering that were not grotesque and implicitly linked to the Dark Side of the wearer as in “The Masks”. For the masks of Curran and Harford were of regular female and male faces with what appeared to be whorling floral patterns covering the top halves and nothing obscuring the bottom halves, implying that they were they only attendees at the gathering who had not lost all their humanity.
In addition, one of the masked attendees wore a Lynch resembling red mask and another attendee wore a mask with a face that resembled Dennis Hopper, who played the Wicked Frank Booth in the twilit, allegorical and CGI free Lynch indie moving painting BLUE VELVET (1986), reaffirming the implicit additional interest in addressing Lynch in EYES WIDE SHUT. The huge blue showgirl evoking headdress on top of the face mask-the top half of which was Oscar gold-of the woman who was implicitly Curran also evoked the moving paintings of Lynch, for the blue colour evoked the obsession with blue velvet in BLUE VELVET and the mysterious Blue Rose FBI investigations in the twilit, allegorical and CGI free Lynch indie moving painting TWIN PEAKS: FIRE WALK WITH ME (1992). Intriguingly, Kubrick did not just implicitly evoke the moving paintings of Lynch in this scene, for the brief trial that Harford endured after being exposed as a stranger who did not belong at the orgiastic gathering also evoked the callous court martial that found the three innocent French soldiers guilty of cowardice at the end of PATHS OF GLORY.
Ominously, Curran soon died after the orgiastic gathering, like the mute girl in FEAR AND DESIRE and the Vietnamese sniper at the end of FULL METAL JACKET in a twilit trio of dead women implicitly linked to film art in the film art of Kubrick. Significantly, when Dr. Harford pondered her corpse on a morgue drawer, it was not only uncertain as to whether the corpse was that of Curran or not, but it was also noticeable that the corpse evoked that of Milla Jovovich in her role as Leeloo in THE FIFTH ELEMENT. This affirmed the implicit link of Harford to Besson, an implicit interest in Besson reaffirmed by the film’s allusions to the twilit, allegorical and implicitly Lynch and Spielberg roasting indie docufeature film LEON: THE PROFESSIONAL (1994). Thus, given that Ziegler persuaded the well meaning but naïve and out of his depth Harford in a conversation that evoked a conversation that Col. Dax had with Gen. Broulard at the end of PATHS OF GLORY to give up on his quest to solve the mystery of the death of Curran and bring someone in the wealthy and powerful establishment to justice for fear of becoming another dead pawn of glory, Kubrick implicitly reaffirmed that he thought that Besson was also well meaning but naïve and out of his depth in a Hollywood establishment that was too strong to be held accountable for the deaths of Chen, Le and Morrow in the TZ disaster. The presence of Pollack reaffirmed the implicit twilit ambience of the scene, for he linked the film to the twilit and disastrous year of 1982 via his appearance as George Fields in his own allegorical docufeature film TOOTSIE (1982). Pollack was also openly linked to the Twilight Zone by his role as the young Southern theatre director Arthur “Art” Willis in the allegorical Buzz Kulik telefilm “The Trouble with Templeton” (1960) from the second season of the original TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series.
Curiously, Kubrick died shortly before the release of EYES WIDE SHUT, making it fitting that he and his life in film art were implicitly addressed in the twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced Sir Scott indie docufeature artbuster GLADIATOR (2000), a film released on May 1, 2000 which sympathetically and implicitly linked the inability before his death of the famed and implicitly Kubrick linked Roman general turned gladiator “Mad” Maximus Decimus Meridius-played by Russell Crowe-to lead Rome and its Empire into a daylit new era free of the Evil and corruption of the implicitly Landis linked Emperor Commodus-played by Joaquin Phoenix-to the inability of Kubrick before his death to lead Hollywood and audiences, film art, film artists and the Temple Theatre into a daylit new era of allegorical and CGI enhanced artbusters free of Landis and the TZ disaster, an implication affirmed by the film’s allusions to AN AMERICAN WEREWOLF IN LONDON, PATHS OF GLORY, SPARTACUS and THE SHINING. The following year, Lynch implicitly roasted Kubrick on one level in his twilit, allegorical and CGI free indie moving painting MULHOLLAND DRIVE (2001), a film released on May 16, 2001 whose implicit interest in Kubrick on one level was affirmed by the film’s allusions to BARRY LYNDON, EYES WIDE SHUT, KILLER’S KISS and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. Making it fitting that soon after the release of MULHOLLAND DRIVE, Spielberg also released his version of Kubrick’s unfinished twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced indie docufeature film A.I. (2001), which implicitly roasted Lynch in the form of odd Mecha boy David-played by Joel H. Osment.
Just as curiously, the intimidating and unstoppable Force of cinematic nature that was Kubrick was implicitly and wistfully linked by Gareth Edwards to the huge, CGI enhanced and back from the dead Godzilla and allowed to implicitly triumph over the union of Disney and Lucasfilm/ILM in 2012 in the implicit form of Godzilla’s triumph over two equally huge and CGI enhanced and Massive Unidentified Terrestrial Organisms (MUTOs)-the larger and multi-legged female implicitly linked to Dis and the smaller, winged and Skyrocking male implicitly linked to Lucasfilm/ILM, respectively-implying the wistful wish of Edwards that Kubrick would also return from the dead and triumph over the CGI enhanced blockbuster beasts of Dis/Lucasfilm/ILM with another great, memorable and CGI free indie docufeature artbuster at the San Francisco thrashing end of the twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced docufeature film GODZILLA (2014), a film released on May 8, 2014 whose implicit interest in Kubrick was affirmed by allusions to DR. STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB, THE BIRDS, THE SHINING and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. Curiously, the towering Kubrick was also implicitly and fittingly linked to the equally towering Piotr “Colussus” Rasputin-played by Stefan Kapicic-in the twilit, allegorical, CGI enhanced, ultraviolent and implicitly Quentin Tarantino toasting Tim Miller super satirical animaction films DEADPOOL (2016) and DEADPOOL 2 (2018), released on January 21, 2016 and May 1, 2018, respectively, and both based on a character created by Dave Cockrum and Len Wein for Marvel Comics.
Then Kubrick was again implicitly linked to the huge and CGI enhanced Godzilla, who, with the help of the equally huge, CGI enhanced and implicitly Christiane linked Mothra, again implicitly triumphed over Disney in the form of the even more huge, CGI enhanced and three headed Monster Zero aka Ghidorah-its three heads perhaps symbolizing Disney, Marvel and Pixar, respectively-in the twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced Michael Dougherty animaction film GODZILLA: KING OF THE MONSTERS (2019), a film released on May 29, 2019 whose implicit allegorical intent was affirmed by the film’s allusions to FULL METAL JACKET, THE SHINING and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. Curiously, Godzilla and Kubrick also implicitly triumphed over Cameron in the implicit form of the huge, fiery, leonopteryx evoking and CGI enhanced Rodan, an implicit interest in Cameron affirmed by the presence of the Cameron resembling and implicitly linked rogue British Colonel Alan Jonah-played by Charles Dance-the presence of Joe Morton as Doctor Houston Brooks, as Morton played Dr. Miles Dyson in the twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced Cameron indie docufeature Zonebuster TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY (1991), and the film’s allusions to such other twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced Cameron indie docufeature Zonebusters as ALIENS (1986), THE ABYSS (1989) and TITANIC (1997) and to the twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced Cameron indie animaction Zonebuster AVASTAR (2009). Two years later, Kubrick was also implicitly linked to the huge and CGI enhanced Godzilla and took on the equally huge, CGI enhanced and implicitly Sir Peter Jackson linked King Kong in the twilit, allegorical and CGI enhanced Adam Wingard animaction film GODZILLA VS. KING KONG (2021), released on March 24, 2021.
Satirical implicit nods to Kubrick that were far removed from the final sad and cynical thoughts on film art from a worn out and world weary Kubrick that were expressed in EYES WIDE SHUT and that implicitly summed up his belief that too small, powerless, helpless and hapless to rise up against and defeat the blockbuster loot lusting Hollywood establishment and its obsession with CGI enhanced and artbuster mocking blockbuster beasts were people in general and film artists in particular-the Brotherhood and Sisterhood of the Screen-and thus doomed always were film artists to be…pawns of glory.
1. Nathan Abrams wrote about the implicit influence of MAD magazine on Kubrick in the third essay “An Alternative New York Jewish Intellectual: Stanley Kubrick’s cultural critique” (pp. 62-79) of the Richard Daniels, Peter Kramer and Tatjana Ljujic edited essay collection Stanley Kubrick: new perspectives.
2. Peter Kramer heralded the arrival of Kubrick’s new artbuster direction on page 61 at the end of the second essay ““Complete Total Final Annihilating Artistic Control”: Stanley Kubrick and post-war Hollywood” (pp.48-61) in Stanley Kubrick: new perspectives.
3. The fittingly surnamed Juhani Pallasmaa wrote about Torrance transforming into a minotaur in “Monster In The Maze: the architecture of THE SHINING” (pp. 198-207) in the fifteenth essay on the film art of Kubrick to be found in the Maja Keppler and Hans-Peter Reichmann edited Stanley Kubrick-catalogue accompanying the Stanley Kubrick exhibition.
4. According to Ursula Von Keitz, in note 22 on p. 197 of “The Shining-Frozen Material: Stanley Kubrick’s adaptation of Stephen King’s novel” (pp. 184-197), the sixteenth essay in Stanley Kubrick-catalogue accompanying the Stanley Kubrick exhibition.
5. This cheeky photograph on p. 18 kicked off “Kubrick’s Kaleidoscope: early photographs 1945-1950” by Alexandra Von Stosch and Rainer Crone (pp. 18-27) in Stanley Kubrick-catalogue accompanying the Stanley Kubrick exhibition.
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