PAWNS OF GLORY:
the inability of Old and New Hollywood film artists
to escape merciless fate and the Hollywood studios
in the allegorical film art
of Stanley Kubrick
by Gary W. Wright
Like most film artists creating film art in the early Eighties, childhood photography enthusiast turned teenaged and adult LOOK magazine photojournalist turned film artist Stanley Kubrick was no doubt disheartened and disturbed by the deaths of actor/director/writer Vic Morrow and illegally hired and employed child extras Renee Chen and Myca in a helicopter crash around 2:20 am in the early morning of July 23, 1982 on the George Folsey jr. produced John Landis set of the twilit and allegorical, Kathleen Kennedy and Frank Marshall produced Landis, Joe Dante, George Miller and Steven Spielberg film, TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE (1983). However, unlike most film artists, Kubrick would not have been too surprised by the deaths of Chen, Le and Morrow or by the fact that Folsey jr., Kennedy, Landis, Marshall and Spielberg suffered little or no consequences for the deaths. For right from the beginning, a pessimistic conviction that people in general and film artists in particular were powerless pawns of those in positions of wealth and power was as prominent a feature of Kubrick’s feature film art as a commitment to a documentary evoking realism. An eerily twilit ambience was also seen and heard in his first films, such as the allegorical documentary short film, THE SEAFARERS (1953), which evoked and alluded to the allegorical Jules Dassin film, THE NAKED CITY (1948), a film that saw the implicitly President Harry S Truman linked NYPD Detective Dan Muldoon-played by Barry Fitzgerald-triumph over the implicitly Adolf Hitler linked ex-wrestling star, William ‘Billy’ Garzah-played by Ted De Corsia-in a not too subtle reminder to audiences and voters in the pivotal U.S. election year of 1948 that President Truman and his Democrats presided over the victory of Nazi Germany in May of 1945.
‘It’s a true spirit of independence…
(but) nobody knows better than a seafaring man
that any man, however independent he is,
isn’t entirely independent…
he’s a member of something larger…
he’s a member of a crew,
a crew of men like himself
bonded together for one essential common purpose.’
For the opening and closing remarks by Don Hollenbeck that preceded and summarized this colour half hour ode to the many benefits to being a member of the CanAm Seafarers International Union (SIU) not only evoked the opening, ongoing and closing narration of THE NAKED CITY by its producer, Mark Hellinger, but eerily anticipated the opening and closing remarks of each episode of the original TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series by Rod Serling, complete with the same constraining suit, smoking cigarette in one hand and strained and uncomfortable way of earnestly addressing the camera and the presumed audience. In fact, a bespectacled union official who resembled Serling was seen towards the end of the film, affirming the implicitly anticipatory nature of THE SEAFARERS. The sight of one Warner Haynie amongst the names of seafarer brothers who had given their lives for the United States in World War II was also eerily prescienct, for his name evoked Warner Brothers, the Hollywood studio that released TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE, and the studio with which Kubrick would make his last five films.
In addition, the sight of James and Lloyd Henderson on the list of immortal dead evoked the pseudonym Philip Henderson used by the prostitute frequenting Doctor Lawrence Stoneman-played by House Jameson-in THE NAKED CITY, affirming that film’s implicit influence on THE SEAFARERS. Indeed, the sight of a young seaman who resembled Dassin, and another who resembled Hitler-complete with a young wife who resembled Eva Braun and a daughter dressed in the black, red and white of the swastika flag of the Third Reich-implicitly affirmed that Kubrick was playfully alluding to THE NAKED CITY in THE SEAFARERS.
Curiously, this ominously prescient link to allegorical film art was fitting. For the CanAm ‘Brotherhood Of The Sea’ evoked a CanAm film artists union and the ‘brotherhood of the screen’ so much it was actually a dangerous contract assignment for young Kubrick to accept in his eagerness for more film art experience, given that the commie hating and union bashing spirit of the era was embraced with spinelessly strident obedience by the Hollywood studios. Indeed, the big, modern and multi-story headquarters of the Atlantic And Gulf Coast District of the SIU in New York, complete with office space for the leadership, a hiring hall-where one of the brother sailors looking hopefully for work resembled Kubrick-a cafeteria and a barbershop affirmed that implication, for the AGCD HQ resembled a Hollywood studio. Fittingly, given that Kubrick would go on to base most of his Hollywood feature films on novels, the SIU and its AGCD HQ in New York featured prominently in such early albeit posthumously published allegorical Jack Kerouac novels as And The Hippos Were Boiled In Their Tanks (2008)-written with William S. Burroughs-and The Sea Is My Brother (2011). Thus, it was fitting that a printer who resembled Kerouac was seen in the print shoppe of the AGCD HQ.
Significantly, while an allegorical novel did not inspire the first short allegorical feature film made by Kubrick, it did lead to full length allegorical feature films inspired by allegorical novels made with Hollywood studios when the budding young film artist fused his ominously twilit and prescient allegorical documentary skills with openly allegorical fiction and joined the Brotherhood of the Silver Screen with the allegorical indie docufeature short film, FEAR AND DESIRE (1953).
‘This forest, then, and all that happens now,
is outside history.
Only the unchanging shapes
of fear and doubt and death are from our world.’
Indeed, the eerily and presciently twilit ambience of THE SEAFARERS immediately returned in this hour long feature film, for the opening narrating voiceover (VO) of David Allen evoked Serling even more than Hollenbeck had in THE SEAFARERS. This ominously twilit prescience was reaffirmed by the fact that the narration also set the audience up for an one hour black and white and openly allegorical and implicit exploration of the battles that an indie film artist had to fight both within and without in order to create indie film art in the symbolic form of four soldiers battling for survival in a nameless forest located in a Hollywood Hills evoking setting, an allegorical black and white struggle that came across as the real first pilot episode of the original and equally allegorical and black and white TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series, complete with music composed by Gerald Fried that anticipated the famous theme for the TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series. Thus, it was grimly and ominously fitting that two of the film’s actors, Paul Mazursky and Frank Silvera, went on to play four roles in the TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series.
Significantly, given that two of the four soldiers stranded in the unknown forest, Mac and Sidney-played by Silvera and Mazursky, respectively-gave in to their Dark Sides and went mad, while the other two soldiers, Lieutenant Corby and Fletcher-played by Kenneth Harp and Stephen Coit, respectively-hunted down and killed their Dark Sides in the form of the enemy general and his captain-literally, as the two were also played by Harp and Coit, respectively-Kubrick implied that he believed that man’s battle with himself was as important, if not more so, than man’s battle with man. An inner battle that Kubrick implicitly acknowledge within himself, given that Fletcher resembled and was implicitly linked to Kubrick.
Curiously, while he resembled Harvey Kurtzman of MAD comic fame, the name of Sidney was an anagram of Disney, implying that Kubrick was also roasting Walt Disney and his film art in FEAR AND DESIRE. An implicit dislike of Disney linked to embattled soldiers that returned along with more ominously twilit memories of the future and a pessimistic conviction that people and film artists were pawns of glory when Kubrick collaborated again with Silvera and Gerald Fried-composer on FEAR AND DESIRE-on the allegorical and THE NAKED CITY evoking docufeature film, KILLER'S KISS (1955), and again with Fried on the allegorical film, THE KILLING (1956), inspired by the allegorical Lionel White novel, Clean Break (1955), which Kubrick wused to establish his serious film art for film art's sake credibility by implicilty likening the more successful film artists of the day to a failed gang of blockbuster loot obsessed robbers. That implicit point established, Kubrick teamed up again with Fried and Timothy Carey and Joseph 'Joe' Turkel-who played Nikki Arcane and Tiny, respectively, in THE KILLING-on the allegorical and eerily prescient and twilit docufeature film, PATHS OF GLORY (1957), inspired by the allegorical Humphrey Cobb novel, Paths Of Glory (1935).
‘The men died wonderfully.’
Indeed, in many ways PATHS OF GLORY was the tragicomically leading exemplar of the pessimistic belief of Kubrick that people and film artists were the pawns of the powerful. For the Great War set film saw the reputation of the implicitly Richard Fleischer linked French General Paul Mireau-played by George Macready-destroyed after he allowed himself to be persuaded by the implicitly Walt Disney linked General George Broulard-played by Adolphe Menjou-to use his 701st Regiment in a doomed and failed attack on a heavily fortified and garrisoned German hilltop position called the Ant Hill, implying that Kubrick believed that Fleischer destroyed his reputation working with Disney on the allegorical film, 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA (1954). Indeed, in their conversation in the trenches shortly before the attack on the German maze of trenches fittingly named Ant Hill, Gen. Mireau and the commander of the doomed attack, Colonel Dax-played by Kirk Douglas, who openly linked the film to 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA via his role as the irrepressible harpooner, Ned Land-openly affirming the film’s implicit interest in the Mouse House. The French palace that Gen. Mireau commandeered for his headquarters also affirmed the film’s implicit interest in Disney, as it evoked the castle that was the centrepiece of the then newly opened Disney World.
Significantly, the failure of the attack led Gen. Mireau to try to save his reputation by blaming the failure on the cowardice of him men rather than their inability to advance very far out of their trenches due to heavy German artillery and withering machine-gun fire, and insisting that an ominously twilit trio of innocent conscripted soldiers of the 701st Regiment-Corporal Phillip Paris, Private Pierre Arnaud and Private Maurice Ferol, played by Ralph Meeker, Joseph ‘Joe’ Turkel and Timothy Carey, respectively-to be randomly picked for execution by firing squad. Curiously, the seven black mustached and Disney resembling fellow soldiers ordered to guard the three condemned soldiers evoked the seven famous dwarves of the allegorical Disney film, SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARVES (1937), reaffirming the implicit Disney addressing intent of the film. Alas, the additional failure of Col. Dax, a successful lawyer before the war, to prevent the eerily twilit trio from being sentenced to death at their court martial implied that Kubrick felt that underlings such as assistant directors would be blamed for the failure of films. Given that Pte. Arnaud resembled and was implicitly linked to Kubrick, Kubrick also implied his pessimistic belief that he was all too well aware that he was not immune to being casually and callously cast aside if the heads of film studios decided he was not useful to them.
And then the show would go on as always, literally, as the film ended with a captured and curvaceous brunette German lass-played by Christiane Harlan, who would go on to be the wife of Kubrick-being forced to sing on stage at a club for the enjoyment of soldiers of the 701st Regiment, beautiful and shapely young brunette linked to the live dramatic arts who anticipated another beautiful and shapely young brunette implicitly linked to indie cinematic dramatic arts. As for Lewis Milestone, he became one of the first film artists to implicitly address Kubrick with a film when he implicitly and grimly reminded Kubrick that brutal and suicidal battles sometimes had to be fought if a war was to be won and victory achieved in his allegorical and implicitly PATHS OF GLORY addressing and evoking film, PORK CHOP HILL (1959), another black and white war film about one of the final battles fought by the U.S. Army in the Korean ‘police action’ in 1953 with Gregory Peck as the implicitly Kubrick linked Lieutenant Joe Clemons. Then Kubrick teamed up again with Douglas who traded Dax for a legendary descendent of Thrax, son of Ares and founder of Thrace, in the allegorical film, SPARTACUS (1960), inspired by the allegorical Howard Fast novel, Spartacus (1951).
‘Just by fighting them, we won something.’
Indeed, the sight of the pugnacious and implicitly David Lean linked Thracian slave, Spartacus-played by Douglas-chained and starving to death in the blistering Libyan sun as an example for his fellow slaves after attacking his Roman guards at the beginning of the film evoked the three French soldiers executed for cowardice as an example for their fellow soldiers at the end of PATHS OF GLORY, immediately affirming that Kubrick continued his pessimistic musings in SPARTACUS. However, unlike the three French soldiers, Spartacus was freed by the discerning gladiator school owner, Lentulus Batiatus-played by Peter Ustinov-and sent to his school in Capua, southern Italy, to be trained as a gladiator. Here the brutal treatment of the gladiators and the love of Spartacus for the beautiful, shapely and educated brunette slave from Britannia, Varinia-a love which evoked the love of Canada for Britain, affirming the implicit link of Spartacus to a Canadian, and played by Jean Simmons-inspired Spartacus to lead his fellow gladiators and all of the slaves they could liberate in Sicily in a free spirited rebellion against the wealth and power of Old Rome, a rebellion that implicitly equated with Jewison being inspired by a love of indie film art to lead a rebellion of indie film artists against the wealth and power of Old Hollywood. Indeed, shortly before the uprising, Batiatus affirmed the implicit link of the gladiators to film artists. For his comment that one of the gladiators, Dionysus-played by Nicholas Dennis-looked bigger in the arena due to ‘optics’ reminded us that film stars often surprised and disappointed fans by being shorter and smaller in person than they were on the big screen. Thus, it was fitting that there was an ‘art’ hidden within Spartacus.
Indeed, the fact that Roman Senate leader, Gracchus-played by Charles Laughton-resembled and was implicitly linked to Alfred Hitchcock and fellow Senators Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus and Marcus Publius Glabrus-played by John Gavin, Laurence Olivier and John Dall, respectively-resembled and were implicitly linked to Marlon Brando (or was that Rock Hudson?), Richard Burton and Eddie Fisher affirmed the implication that the powerful Roman establishment symbolized the powerful Old Hollywood establishment at that point in time. The wives of Crassus and Glabrus, Lady Helena and Lady Claudia Maria-played by Nina Foch and Joanna Barnes, respectively-reaffirmed that implication, as they resembled and were implicitly linked to Sybil Williams and Elizabeth Taylor. Alas, the Spartacus lead rebellion was as unsuccessful as the equally spirited defense by Col. Dax of the three innocent soldiers at their court martial in PATHS OF GLORY, and Spartacus and all of his loyal indie followers were either killed in battle against the establishment legions of Rome or crucified along the Appian way, in the end, implying that Kubrick believed that Lean would be just as unsuccessful in his quest to succeed as an indie film artist.
Curiously, the sight of Batiatus driving Varinia and the child sired by Spartacus by horse drawn cart down the Appian Way out of Rome to safety at the end of the film did imply the hope of Kubrick that a film artist would be born who would grow up and liberate film art forever from the tyrannical and blockbuster loot lust grip of the Hollywood studios. A film art liberator who was implicitly not him, given that Kubrick implicitly linked himself to Antonius-played by Tony Curtis. For the young and doomed slave was killed by a heartbroken Spartacus in a duel that the crass Crassus forced the two men to fight before the crucifixion of Spartacus, implying that Kubrick also saw himself as an outsider doomed to be killed one day by the wealth and power of Old Hollywood.
Significantly, shortly after the death of Antonius and the crucifixion of Spartacus, Gracchus committed suicide to avoid the wrath of Crassus, implying that Kubrick felt that Hitchcock was just as doomed as him. Gloomy predictions of doom for Hitchcock and himself that continued despite winning four Oscars with SPARTACUS-for Best Art Direction-Color, Best Cinematography-Color, Best Costume Design-Color and Best Supporting Actor-and breaking free from resigned studio hack work and going on to take complete and fearless artistic control of his film art after when Kubrick reunited with SPARTACUS producer James B. Harris on his allegorical docufeature film, LOLITA (1962), inspired by the equally implicitly Hitchcock roasting Vladimir Nabokov novel, Lolita (1955), making it fitting that Nabokov wrote the screenplay for LOLITA.
‘And instead he wanted me to co-operate with the others making some kind of a…you know, art movie.’
Humourously, the film started with the opening titles playing over what turned out to be the sinister left foot of the rebellious and coquettish blonde teen ‘nymphet’, Dolores ‘Lolita’ Haze-played by Suellyn ‘Sue’ Lyon-on the right of the screen lovingly and gently held by the equally sinister left hand of the lovesick and implicitly Hitchcock linked English literature Professor Humbert Humbert-played by James Mason, who linked another Kubrick film to 20, 000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA via his role as the mysterious and furiously anti-imperialist submariner, Captain Nemo-while his right hand lovingly and gently applied cotton batting to separate the toes and toenail polish to each toe. This tableau cheekily recalled the sight of Adam on Earth below and on the left reaching out his left hand to the right hand of God on a cloud with his angels above and to the right in the famous image of the two painted by Michelangelo on the roof of the Sistine Chapel. This immediately and implicitly not only linked both characters to art, but also placed Prof. Humbert with the mortals and Lolita with the angels, and, hence, Los Angeles, the city of the angels and of film art. Indeed, the implicit link of Lolita to L.A. was affirmed by the fact that her nickname began with an ‘L’ and ended with an ‘a’, and by the fact that her surname evoked the famous L.A. haze. This cheeky image then faded, to be replaced by the sight of Prof. Humbert driving down a long Appian way evoking highway that led to a mansion as palatial and well appointed as the Roman villa of Crassus, linking the beginning of LOLITA to the end of SPARTACUS.
Prof. Humbert then broke into the messy and cluttered mansion, searched in the mess for its owner, which turned out to be the mischievous and implicitly Kubrick linked teleplay writer, Clare Quilty-complete with Bronx accent, and played by Peter Sellers-confronted Quilty, and then shot him dead. Fittingly, the last bullets to kill Quilty slammed through the canvas of an eighteenth century European painting of a beautiful young blonde woman that Quilty took cover behind, setting us up again for the arrival of the equally beautiful, young, blonde and implicitly film art linked Lolita. This murder evoked not just the three soldiers executed by firing squad at the end of PATHS OF GLORY, but also the sad sight of Spartacus killing Antonius at the end of SPARTACUS. Indeed, before he was killed, Quilty wrapped himself in a white bedsheet to create a makeshift toga and initially called himself Spartacus when Prof. Humbert asked him who he was, ironically reminding us that Spartacus refused to confirm his identity to Crassus at the end of SPARTACUS, reaffirming the link of the beginning of LOLITA to the end of SPARTACUS and the themes of that film.
Then the film went back in time four years to the arrival in the fittingly Woodholly cadenced resort town of Ramsdale, New Hampshire, of the creepy, eccentric, fussy and stuffy Prof. Humbert, and his success at ingratiating himself into the house and life of his landlord, the blonde and implicitly Old Hollywood linked Charlotte Haze-implicitly linked to the Wicked Witch of the East by the music that preceded her appearance, and played by Shelley Winters-and his failure at wooing her equally blonde and implicitly Dorothy and New Hollywood linked daughter, Lolita, whose left foot we have already come to know. Curiously, Prof. Humbert’s tragicomic efforts evoked the tragicomic efforts by the equally eccentric, fussy and stuffy Hitchcock to ingratiate himself with the Good War generation of Americans and then their rebel boomer children after moving to the United States in 1939, and his equally creepy obsession with Hollywood blondes.
Indeed, the choice of Mason as Humbert affirmed the implicit Hitchcock roasting intent of LOLITA, as Mason had played sinister Phillip Vandamm in the allegorical Hitchcock film, NORTH BY NORTHWEST (1959). In addition, when first met sunbathing in the backyard of the Haze house, Lolita in her skimpy two piece bikini, white angelfeather sunhat-which reaffirmed her implicit link to the Hollywood film art of the city of the angels-and sunglasses looked like the twin sister of Frances Stevens-played by Grace Kelly-who was also first met sunbathing in her bikini, sunhat and sunglasses in the allegorical Hitchcock film, TO CATCH A THIEF (1955), linking Lolita to Stevens and reaffirming the implication that Kubrick was roasting Hitchcock in LOLITA. LOLITA also evoked the equally black and white and allegorical Hitchcock film, PSYCHO (1960), reaffirming the implicit Hitchcock roasting intent of LOLITA. Last but not least, the sight of Humbert, Lo and Charlotte quaking in the Haze car as they watched the allegorical Terence Fisher film, THE CURSE OF FRANKENSTEIN (1957), at a drive-in also affirmed that an English film artist with a fondness for horror was being roasted in LOLITA and openly linked Hum, Charlotte and Lo to film art.
Kubrick also implied again his fear that he would be cut down, perhaps by scathing reviews of LOLITA or by a better film by Hitchcock that implicitly roasted himself, for the film moved inexorably and tragicomically full circle to the arrival of the despondent and vengeful Prof. Humbert at the mansion of Quilty, determined to gun him down the mischievous Quilty for helping Lo escape his besotted clutches. Thus, given that both Humbert and Quilty-whose raven tressed and vampiric girlfriend, Vivien Darkbloom (played by Marianne Stone) evoked the Wicked Witch of the West-failed to win over young Lolita to each of their causes, Kubrick implied that he was convinced that Hitchcock and himself would also fail to win over the gleefully irreverent and anti-Establishment young audiences and the young and restless film artists of New Hollywood who emerged in the early Sixties. A doomed attempt that was, nonetheless, implicitly acknowledged and sympathized with by Francis Coppola in his LOLITA evoking and fittingly entitled allegorical film, DEMENTIA 13 (1963), arguably the first feature film of New Hollywood.
Last but not least, the sight of a hospital receptionist named Miss Fromkiss-played by Maxine Holden-who looked like Alfred E. Neuman, the gaptoothed and grinning face of MAD magazine and of Lolita fleeing Humbert in the end-like Kelly fled Hitchcock for the Prince of Monaco-for a young fellow named Richard P. Schuler-played by Gary Cockrell-who also looked like Alfred E. Neuman, was a fitting end to LOLITA. For this MAD ending reminded us that the mischievous Boomers loved MAD magazine-indeed, a paperback collection of MAD was seen on a kitchen bookshelf in the Haze house-and prepared us for even more merciless roasts of Old Hollywood film artists to the Mutually Assured Delight of audiences when Kubrick put on the MADcap for his next feature film. 1
Curiously, the resemblance and implicit link to Kubrick of the first male customer-played by Alain Smithee-of new found prostitute, Nana-played by Anna Karina-in the allegorical Jean-Luc Godard film, VIVRE SA VIE (1962), implied that Godard thought that Kubrick was abandoning indie film art for indie film art's sake in favour of Hollywood film art for blockbuster profit's sake with films like SPARTACUS-perhaps LOLITA reassured him that this was not true. Indeed, a poster for SPARTACUS seen on a cinema wall shortly before the arrival of the first man affirmed his implict link to Kubrick. For his part, with its allusions to LOLITA and SPARTACUS-complete with the return of composer Alex North from the latter-Joseph L. Mankiewicz implicitly roasted Kubrick and his film art in the symbolic form of Marc Antony and Queen Cleopatra-played by Burton and Taylor, respectively-in the allegorical film, CLEOPATRA (1963), a ridiculously long and turgid four hour schlockbuster that almost singlehandedly destroyed Old Hollywood. As for Hitchcock, he did indeed implicitly roast Kubrick in turn in his allegorical film, THE BIRDS (1963), an implication affirmed by the film’s allusions to LOLITA and SPARTACUS. And implicitly warning the cocky and confident young Kubrick to be careful, lest a film too controversial caused the usually placid audiences of the world to rise up en masse against him like the usually placid birds of the town of Bodega Bay, CA rose up en masse to attack the Douglas resembling and implicitly Kubrick linked Mitchell ‘Mitch’ Brenner-played by Rod Taylor-his mother, the implicitly Old Hollywood linked and Charlotte evoking Lydia Brenner–fittingly played by Old Hollywood veteran Jessica Tandy-the implicitly New Hollywood linked and Lolita evoking blonde, Melanie Daniels-fittingly played by brash newcomer Tippi Hedren-and the rest of the shocked and confused townspeople of the picturesque coastal town.
Giving Kubrick good reason to don the MADcap and gleefully roast Mankiewicz and Old Hollywood when he teamed up again with Sellers and LOLITA editor Anthony Harvey to implicitly and gleefully subvert and mock the blockbuster in his next darkly humourous allegorical docufeature film, DR. STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB (1964), inspired by the allegorical Peter Bryant novel, Red Alert aka Two Hours To Doom (1958) and coming across as a more black humoured and macabre version of the allegorical and implicitly Old Hollywood roasting Stanley Kramer film, IT’S A MAD, MAD, MAD, MAD WORLD (1963), which implicitly roasted Stanley and Christiane Kubrick in the implicit form of Melville and Monica Crump-played by Sid Caesar and Edie Adams, respectively.
‘Gentlemen, you can’t fight in here.
This is the War Room!’
Indeed, this MADcap film that poked grimly macabre fun at the truly MAD doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction that prevailed in American military ‘thinking’ at the time always resembled a MAD magazine movie roast come to life. A live action MAD movie roast that also implicitly and satirically linked the frantic but doomed attempts of older film artists at the time like Disney, Hitchcock, Mankiewicz, John Ford, John Huston and Sam Peckinpah to create and release full colour blockbuster hits for the studios like CLEOPATRA, SPARTACUS and 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA that would appeal to young Boomer audiences and lure them away from their beloved television sets, rock and roll, junk food, comic books-and MAD magazines-and back to the struggling cinemas to the equally doomed and tragicomic attempts of the implicitly Disney linked RAF Group Captain Lionel Mandrake-played by Sellers-the implicitly Ford linked U.S. Army Air Force bomber pilot, Major T.J. ‘King’ Kong-his nickname and surname fittingly linking the film to cinematic blockbuster beasts, and played by Slim Pickens-the implicitly Hitchcock linked Soviet ambassador, Alexej de Sadesky-played by Peter Bull-the implicitly Huston linked Colonel ‘Bat’ Guano-played by Keenan Wynn-and the implicitly Mankiewicz linked General Buck Turgidson-played by George C. Scott-to prevent a world destroying nuclear war between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. that was set off by the truly MADcap machinations of the implicitly Samuel Fuller linked Gen. Jack D. Ripper-played by Sterling Hayden-from breaking out throughout the film. The military men and politicians joining Gen. Turgidson, a frustrated, harried and implicitly Cecil B. DeMille linked Prasident Merkin Muffley-also played by Sellers-and a Stan ‘the Man’ Lee resembling and possibly linked Doctor Strangelove-also played by Sellers-in the War Room reaffirmed that implication, as some resembled older film artists like Louis B. Mayer, D.W. Griffith and Fritz Lang. This reminded us that some of the Senators in the Roman Senate in SPARTACUS also resembled and were implicitly linked to prominent members of the Hollywood film art community at the time like Brando, Burton, Fisher and Hitchcock.
Indeed, nothing summed up this desperate and doomed quest of Old Hollywood to excite the enthusiasm of young audiences with a big blockbuster hit than the sight of the whooping and hollering and cowboy hat wearing Major Kong riding a nuclear bomb down onto its Soviet target at the end of the film, a falling nuclear bomb and the apocalyptic chaos it unleashed that not only presciently presaged the end of the blockbuster obsessed Old Hollywood era but also ominously anticipated the falling helicopter of the TZ disaster and the apocalyptic chaos unleashed by the deadly crash. The multi-nuclear orgasmic sight brought the film full technosexual circle, recalling the sight of the opening titles playing over a gas refuelling plane as it copulated with a B-52 bomber at the beginning of the film. However, while implicitly lampooning the desperate attempts of the more established Old Hollywood film artists to connect with youthful Boomer audiences so as to continue scoring blockbuster hits in DR. STRANGELOVE, Kubrick clearly wondered if it was possible to actually pull off this feat with a new style of film art that would affirm that ‘…commercial success was perfectly compatible with thematically and/or formally challenging films’. 2
As for Godard, he indeed implicitly approved of LOLITA, for he allowed the implicitly Kubrick linked Franz-played by Sami Frey-to survive the botched robbery that killed his partner, Arthur-implicitly linked to James B. Harris, producer of LOLITA and SPARTACUS, and played by Claude Brasseur-and flee with Odile-played by Karina-at the end of the allegorical and LOLITA cadenced film, BANDE A PART aka BAND OF OUTSIDERS (1964). For his part, Sergio Leone implicitly linked him to an unhappy but steadfast Union officer-played by Aldo Giuffre-the allegorical film, THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE ugly (1966)-and affirmed the implicit link to Kubrick with allusions to PATHS OF GLORY-and Arthur Penn and company implicitly roasted him and LOLITA in their allegorical docufeature film, BONNIE AND CLYDE (1967).
Indeed, the homicidal and Humbert evoking outlaw robber, Clyde Barrow-played by Warren Beatty-his equally murderous and Lolita evoking sidekick, Bonnie Parker-played by Faye Dunaway-Clyde’s gun blasting and Nabokov evoking brother, Buck Barrow-played by Gene Hackman-Buck’s violence and deploring and Charlotte evoking wife, Blanche Barrow-played by Estelle Parsons-their dimwitted, equally violent and Neuman evoking accomplice, C.W. Moss-played by Michael J. Pollard-and C.W.’s outraged, law abiding and Hitchcock evoking father, Ivan Moss-played by Dub Taylor-affirmed the film’s implicit link to LOLITA and implicit interest in roasting Kubrick. Thus, given that the Hitchcock resembling and implicitly linked Ivan Moss helped Texas Ranger, Captain Frank Hamer-played by Denver Pyle-and the rest of the pursuing police trap and gun down Bonnie and Clyde, in the end, Penn implicitly hoped that the next film of Hitchcock would triumph over Kubrick. Indeed, the fact that the license on the final stolen car that Bonnie and Clyde drove to their doom had the license 3-6126 affirmed the film’s implicit interest in Kubrick, for the license reminded us that LOLITA was released in 1962. The film’s allusions to DR. STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB and THE BIRDS reaffirmed the film’s implicit Kubrick addressing intent.
Luckily for Kubrick, the demise of his film art and himself did not happen, for he did succeed in creating a new style of film art by fusing the fearless film art for film art’s sake philosophy of LOLITA and DR. STRANGELOVE with the blockbuster size and scope of SPARTACUS to create the allegorical and Ozian themed docufeature artbuster, 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), inspired by the allegorical Arthur C. Clarke short story, ‘The Sentinel’ (1951).
‘Eighteen months ago,
the first evidence of intelligent life off the Earth
Fittingly, given that a blockbuster hit that set off a nightmarishly exuberant and multiply erupting nuclear armageddon that killed most of the people and audiences of Earth and forced the few survivors to begin anew ended DR. STRANGELOVE, the film began with multiple staccato shots of a nuclear explosion evoking sun rising in the eastern skies over barren and post-apocalyptic Earth evoking desertscapes before focussing on tribes of primitive humans fighting amongst themselves like the film artists of New and Old Hollywood in the opening Dawn Of Man segment. Given that the side led by the implicitly Scarecrow linked Moonwatcher-played by Daniel Richter-were inspired by a towering and television evoking black rectangular monolith to create the bone weapons needed to kill and defeat the other tribe, Kubrick implied his belief that the television inspired young Boomer film artists of New Hollywood would use all of the new film and digital technology to defeat Old Hollywood and bring young audiences back to the Temple Theatre with innovative and hi-tech artbusters like 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY.
Indeed, in the allegorical Clarke novel, 2001: A Space Odyssey, which was based on an early version of the film’s screenplay, there was a greater implicit link of the first monolith to television. For the first monolith was not black and opaque but crystal, and hypnotizing colour shapes and images swirled over its surface, probing and teaching Moonwatcher’s tribe of early humans (Clarke, pp. 10-22). The sight of Moonwatcher being inspired by the monolith to create and use a bone weapon and throwing his bone hammer into the air after defeating the other tribe, and the shot of the falling weapon cutting to a shot of a nuclear weapon armed satellite orbiting Earth in a future where space exploration was correctly anticipated to be driven by private corporations rather than public governments, affirmed the implication that Kubrick expected New Hollywood to use all of the new technology at its disposal to defeat Old Hollywood.
In addition, the scary appearance and the intimidating bone weapon used by Moonwatcher and the Earth bound home of his early human tribe evoked the implicitly Earth linked Scarecrow-played by Ray Bolger-in the allegorical and implicitly Wicked Wallis Simpson roasting Victor Fleming film, THE WIZARD OF OZ (1939), confirming the Ozian theme of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. For their part, the metal machines, dry and frozen moon, and silver spacesuits of William Sylvester’s Old Hollywood linked Doctor Heywood Floyd-indeed, his name looked and sounded like Hollywood Old-and his lunar companions linked the second half of the Dawn of Man segment to the equally dry, frozen, metal, silver and implicitly Water linked Tin Man-played by Jack Haley. For their part, the orange spacesuit and the courageous and David versus Goliath evoking battle of Commander David Bowman-played by Keir Dullea-with the all seeing and all knowing onboard computer, Heuristic Algorithmic 9000 aka HAL 9000-who started off implicitly linked to Glinda the Good before slowly but surely and implicitly transforming into HEL 9000, the Wicked Witch of the West, and voiced by Douglas Rain-on the fittingly flying broomstick shaped USSC Discovery I spaceship linked the Mission to Jupiter segment to the implicitly Fire linked Cowardly Lion-played by Bert Lahr.
Last but not least, the sight of Commander Bowman floating away from the USSC Discovery I in a pod before blasting off into hyperspace on an intergalactic voyage that led to mysteriously palatial and futuristic Emerald City like digs in the closing Jupiter and Beyond segment of the film evoked the implicitly Air linked and Emerald City ruling Great Oz-played by Frank Morgan-drifting away in his hot air balloon at the end of THE WIZARD OF OZ, and the tornado that carried Kansas waif Dorothy Gale-played by Judy Garland-and her canine companion, Toto, from Kansas to Oz at the beginning of THE WIZARD OF OZ. A fitting link to Dorothy, setting us up for the sight of a transformed and evolved Starchild Bowman returning to Earth at the end of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY like a transformed Dorothy returned to Kansas at the end of THE WIZARD OF OZ in the first and only real ‘happy’ and triumphant end to a Kubrick film or artbuster.
Significantly, the segments of the film and the evolution of Bowman into Starchild-an evolution that was again linked to television in 2001: A Space Odyssey, for the hotel suite Bowman found himself living in after his intergalactic journey was created from television programs from Earth (Clarke, 287)-affirmed the implicit hope of Kubrick that film art would evolve into a new artbuster era that combined the best of art and blockbuster films. For the mostly silent and speechless first half of the Dawn of Man segment evoked the silent era of film art; the eagerly talkative and music supported second half of the Dawn of Man segment evoked the talkie era of film art; the artsy Mission to Jupiter segment evoked the artsy post-WWII film era; while the Jupiter and Beyond segment evoked the psychedelic Sixties era of film, implying that Kubrick was meditating on the history of film art as well as trying to kick off a new and transformed Starchild film artist era of artbuster film art free from the disturbing and television evoking presence of Sentinel monoliths in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. Alas, the august Academy was so impressed they awarded 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY one whole Oscar for Best Visual Effects, which Kubrick shared as he had helped work on them.
As for Kubrick, he implicitly replied to BONNIE AND CLYDE when he rejoined 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY cinematographer John Alcott on his next allegorical docufeature artbuster, A CLOCKWORK ORANGE (1971), inspired by the allegorical and implicitly Burroughs roasting Anthony Burgess novel, A Clockwork Orange (1962).
Indeed, wayward young futuristic hooligan, Alexander ‘Alex’ DeLarge-played by Malcolm McDowell-and his equally wayward ‘droogs’ Dim, Georgie and Pete-played by Warren Clarke, James Marcus and Michael Tarn, respectively-resembled and were implicitly linked throughout the film to Penn, Blanche, Buck and C.W. from BONNIE AND CLYDE, implicitly affirming that Kubrick was addressing that film throughout A CLOCKWORK ORANGE. The Hitchcock resembling and implicitly linked Mr. DeLarge-played by Philip Stone-and the furiously scowling portrait of Beethoven on the wall of the apartment bedroom of Alex affirmed that implication, for they both evoked the equally scowling and implicitly Hitchcock linked Mr. Moss at the end of BONNIE AND CLYDE. The Dirty Thirties headgear-including a black beret worn by Pete that evoked a black beret worn by Bonnie-and the footage from the allegorical Leni Riefenstahl film, TRIUMPH OF THE WILL (1935), reaffirmed the film’s interest in BONNIE AND CLYDE.
However, Kubrick also implied that he had mixed feelings about Penn and BONNIE AND CLYDE. For, while Alex ended up being betrayed and attacked by his droogs one fateful night after killing the implicitly Pauline Kael linked Miss Weathers aka the Cat Woman-apparently in retaliation for Kael’s exuberant review of BONNE AND CLYDE, and played by Miriam Karlin-arrested by the police and sent to prison, it was noticeable that he shrugged off the violent film aided Ludovico Treatment that was supposed to cure him of violent tendencies that he endured in prison in order to secure an early parole and ended the film just as violent and rapacious as he started. Thus, Kubrick implied that while irritated that BONNIE AND CLYDE implicitly roasted LOLITA and himself, he was also pleased that he had been roasted by an excellent film. Kubrick also implied that he was resigned to the fact that the film art altering bloody violence of BONNIE AND CLYDE was now here to stay, given that A CLOCKWORK ORANGE was an even more violent and sexual film. And another eerily prescient and twilit film, given that the number 655231 that was assigned to Alex during his sojourn in prison also anticipated the even more embattled and dread allegorical Zone Wars that broke out between film artists world wide after the TZ disaster. Indeed, a 236 hidden within the number almost eerily and presciently anticipated the 23782 date of the TZ disaster.
Curiously, A CLOCKWORK ORANGE often evoked early allegorical David Cronenberg films like STEREO (1969) and CRIMES OF THE FUTURE (1970). The cinematic Ludovico Treatment affirmed the implicit interest in young Cronenberg, for the treatment evoked the treatment used to develop the latent extrasensory powers (ESP) of select young subjects in STEREO. The letters on the license plate of the stolen Durango 95 sports car that DeLarge and his droogs used to drive off in search of more ultraviolence at the beginning of the film affirmed the implicit Cronenberg addressing intent of A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, for the letters ‘DAV’ almost spelled Dave or David. The resemblance of the writer, Mr. Frank Alexander-played by Patrick Magee-to Marshall McLuhan also implicitly affirmed Kubrick’s interest in a Canadian film artist linked to Toronto. In addition, the resemblance of the police inspector-played by Lindsay Campbell-who oversaw the arrest of Alex to Rene Levesque; the fact that the two prisoners who admired DeLarge at the prison Sunday church service looked like living caricatures of Leonard Cohen and Irving Layton; and the resemblance of the political advisor who trailed Freddie, the Ludovico Treatment embracing Minister of the Interior-played by Anthony Sharp-to then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau also affirmed Kubrick’s implicit interest in and approval of the first allegorical film art of Cronenberg.
For his part, Sidney Lumet implicitly sternly replied to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE and reminded Kubrick that violence in reality and in film art should not be taken lightly in a moving look at Sean Connery’s Sergeant ‘Johnny’ Johnson, a British police detective so haunted and traumatized by violence experienced during his decades with the police that he finally snapped and beat Ian Bannen’s Kenneth Baxter, a suspect in a girl sexual assault case, to death during an interrogation in the allegorical film, THE OFFENSE (1973), an implicit allegorical intent affirmed by allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE and the presences of a Kubrick resembling and implicitly linked Chief Inspector named Lawson-played by Ronald Radd-and of a Burroughs resembling and implicitly linked Detective Superintendent named Cartwright-played by Trevor Howard. As for George Lucas, he implicitly roasted Kubrick as a used car salesman-played by John Brent-in the openly Ozian themed and implicitly Don Shebib roasting allegorical docufeature film, AMERICAN GRAFFITI (1973), a surprisingly successful film that established Lucas as the new reigning box office King.
Significantly, that same year, Landis also implicitly likened Kubrick’s cinematic attack on New Hollywood to the tragicomic and film long homicidal rampages of a revived early human-played by Landis-straight out of the first part of the Dawn of Man segment of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY in the gleefully satirical and implicitly Kubrick roasting allegorical film, SCHLOCK (1973). Thus, Kubrick must have taken comfort from the allegorical and implicitly Lucas and Francis Coppola roasting Richard Rush film, FREEBIE AND THE BEAN (1974), which implicitly linked Coppola and Lucas to two free wheeling, independent, quarrelsome and riotous San Fran police detectives, Freebie and the Bean-played by James Caan and Alan Arkin, respectively-whose madcap misadventures and loose interpretation of the law got them in nothing but trouble throughout the frenetic and hilarious film.
Kubrick would also have been pleased by the implicitly roasting Coppola and Lucas received in the allegorical Huston film, THE MAN WHO WOULD BE KING (1975). For this tragicomic tale of two nineteenth century British adventurers, Peachy Carnehan and Danny Dravot-played by Michael Caine and Sean Connery, respectively-who were destroyed by their attempt to take over and rule their own independent country north of the India of the British Raj, in the end, implicitly warned Coppola and Lucas that their attempt to create their own successful and independent American Zoetrope film studio north of Hollywood in San Francisco would also end in harrowing failure. A resounding failure that perhaps inspired Kubrick to take off his MADcap again and get more restrained and thoughtful when he rejoined Alcott, Stone and Milena Canonero and Jan Harlan-costume designer and assistant producer, respectively, on A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-and Pat Roach-who played a bouncer in the Korova Milkbar in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-on his next allegorical docufeature artbuster, BARRY LYNDON (1975), inspired by the allegorical William M. Thackeray novel, The Memoirs Of Barry Lyndon (1844).
‘The fact is, the young monkey’s fallen in love with Nora…’
Indeed, Kubrick implied that the naïve and foolish Irish country boy known initially as Redmond Barry-and played by Ryan O’ Neal-who longed for fame and fortune symbolized the equally naïve and foolish Landis and his longing to be a successful film artist throughout BARRY LYNDON. The sight of Barry losing his father to a duel early in life and being raised by his mother-played by Marie Kean-affirmed the implicit link of Barry and Landis, reminding us that Landis was also raised by his mother after losing his father early in life. The fact that a wealthy and Hitchcock resembling uncle named Brady watched over Barry and his mother after the death of his father reaffirmed the implicit link between Barry and Landis, reminding us that a wealthy uncle of Landis persuaded his mother to move the two from Chicago to Los Angeles so he could watch over them after the death of his father.
In addition, a love scene early in the film between Barry and his ambitious and beautiful young Irish cousin, Nora Brady-played by Gay Hamilton-evoked a similar love scene between Schlock and his heart’s love, Mindy-played by Eliza Garrett-in SCHLOCK, reaffirming the link between Barry and Landis. The sight of a seasoned military veteran named Captain Grogan-played by Godfrey Quigley-taking Barry under his wing when he left home after almost killing Nora’s perhaps Kubrick linked English fiancée, Captain John Quin-played by Leonard Rossiter-in a duel also affirmed the implicit link of Barry and Landis, reminding us that seasoned Hollywood veteran George Folsey jr. also took Landis under his wing and produced his first films. The sight of Barry managing to ingratiate himself with and marry the wealthy, titled, Varinia and Charlotte Haze evoking and implicitly Old Hollywood linked widow, Lady Lyndon-played by Marisa Berenson-and taking on the title of Barry Lyndon also affirmed the implicit link of Barry Lyndon to Landis, as Lady Lyndon resembled and was implicitly linked to his wife, Deborah Nadoolman Landis. The sight of Barry Lyndon being gunned down in the end in a duel by Lady Lyndon’s outraged son, the implicitly Spielberg linked Lord Bullingdon-played by Leon Vitali-reaffirmed the implicit link between Landis and Lyndon, reminding us that Schlock was also gunned down at the end of SCHLOCK. The final duel also evoked the duel fought between Antonius and Spartacus at the end of SPARTACUS, and brought BARRY LYNDON full circle, for the film began with Barry Lyndon’s father being shot dead in a duel.
Thus, in the quick rise, fall and disappearance of the disrespectful, naïve, foolish, immature ambitious but untalented, lazy and unstable Barry-a fall aided by the establishment of the era, which crushed him like the Roman establishment crushed Spartacus-Kubrick implicitly expressed his hope that the equally disrespectful, naïve, foolish, immature and untalented Landis would destroy himself if he persisted in his delusion that he was a film artist and disappear just as quickly, and obliterated SCHLOCK with a far better film, in the end. Alas for Kubrick, audiences, film art, film artists and the Temple Theatre, Landis somehow managed to stick around despite the fact that SCHLOCK was a flop, and lead film art straight into the Twilight Zone. In addition, Kubrick also implicitly and more gently roasted Ford, Hitchcock, Lean, Lucas and Volker Schlondorff in the forms of notorious highway man Captain Feeney, the loyal Lady Lyndon servant Graham, the unswerving Reverend Samuel Runt, Feeney’s young highway man apprentice, Seamus, and Prussian Captain Potzdorf-played by Arthur O’Sullivan, Stone, Murray Melvin, Billy Boyle and Hardy Kruger, respectively-in the film.
Significantly, BARRY LYNDON won four Oscars for Best Adapted Musical Score, Best Art/Set Design, Best Cinematography and Best Costume Design, implying that the Academy was impressed with the artbuster philosophy. Perhaps impressed by how Alcott and Kubrick made every frame of BARRY LYNDON look like a moving painting, New Hollywood abruptly left behind its art for art’s sake and low budget beginnings and also implicitly embraced the big budget allegorical artbuster. Indeed, the allegorical Spielberg artbuster, CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND (1977), the allegorical and implicitly Spielberg roasting Terry Gilliam artbuster, JABBERWOCKY (1977), and the allegorical and implicitly Lucas roasting and BARRY LYNDON evoking Sir Ridley Scott artbuster, THE DUELLISTS (1977), all made clear that indie film artists and New Hollywood become eager converts to the artbuster cause of Kubrick. This mass embrace of the artbuster ended the war between Old and New Hollywood as it united the high artistic ideals of New Hollywood with the populist and commercial goals of Old Hollywood, sweeping away the rift between the two Hollywoods to create one fused and united Hollywood. Indeed, the artbuster was eagerly embraced by many film artists, with dedicated and unswerving practitioners like Gilliam and Sir Scott and followers like Luc Besson, Kathryn Bigelow, Tim Burton, James Cameron, Sofia Coppola, Richard Kelly and David Lynch to this day, no doubt to the satisfaction of Kubrick.
However, given his implicit dislike of SCHLOCK, Kubrick would have been displeased to be implicitly roasted again by Landis in the form of Bluto-played by John Belushi-in the allegorical film, ANIMAL HOUSE (1978). For his part, Cronenberg implicitly and sympathetically hoped that Kubrick would continue to succeed with his indie artbuster dreams like the implicitly Kubrick linked race car driver, Lonnie ‘Lucky Man’ Johnson-played by William Smith-succeeded as both the head of an indie race car team and its top driver in the twilit and allegorical film, FAST COMPANY (1978), an implicit Kubrick addressing intent affirmed by the film’s allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, BARRY LYNDON, LOLITA, SPARTACUS and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. An implicit sympathy that did not impress Kubrick, for he chose to implicitly blast Cronenberg when he collaborated again with Alcott, Canonero, Harlan, Stone, Turkel and Vitali on the ‘horrorshow’ allegorical docufeature artbuster, THE SHINING (1980), inspired by the allegorical and implicitly Kubrick roasting Screamin’ Stephen King novel, The Shining (1977), an ironically implicit interest in roasting Kubrick affirmed by the film’s allusions to BARRY LYNDON, LOLITA, SPARTACUS and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY.
‘And as far as my wife is concerned, I’m sure she’ll be absolutely fascinated when I tell her. She’s a confirmed ghost story and horror film addict.’
Indeed, the sight of a tiny yellow Volkswagen bug driving along a spectacular but menacing and maze evoking mountain highway to the Overlook Hotel that opened the film immediately affirmed the implicit Cronenberg addressing intent of the film, for the beginning evoked the equally spectacular but less menacing sight of film production truck evoking race team trucks rolling along an Albertan highway overshadowed by the Rockies at the beginning of and throughout FAST COMPANY. This implication was reaffirmed at the Overlook by the appearance of the VW’s driver, the troubled and implicitly Cronenberg linked English teacher/writer, John Daniel ‘Jack’ Torrance-played by Jack Nicholson-for he resembled the possibly Spielberg linked rival racer, Gary ‘the Blacksmith’ Black-played by Cedric Smith-in FAST COMPANY. In addition, the film’s allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE and to such allegorical Cronenberg films as CRIMES OF THE FUTURE, STEREO, SHIVERS (1975) and THE BROOD (1979), and the film’s Cronenberg evoking spare and minimal camera movements reaffirmed the implication that Kubrick was roasting Cronenberg in THE SHINING.
The Apollo 11 sweater worn at one point by Jack’s psychic and trance plagued son, Danny Torrance-played by the curiously but fittingly named Danny Lloyd-reaffirmed the film’s implicit Cronenberg addressing intent, reminding us that the year of the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969 was the year of the release of STEREO, the first major Cronenberg film, and one as obsessed with ESP as THE SHINING. The resemblance of Overlook Hotel manager, Stuart Ullman-his ominous name only one letter away from Bullman, and played by Barry Nelson-to Sir Scott also reaffirmed the Cronenberg addressing intent of the film, reminding us that Sir Scott had sympathetically reached out to the then embattled Cronenberg in the implicit form of equally embattled Napoleonic officer Armand D’Hubert-played by Keith Carradine-in THE DUELLISTS. The resemblance of the ghostly ex-caretaker, Delbert Grady-played by Stone-to Hitchcock was also fitting, reminding us that the career of the creepy Hitch was ending just as that of the even more creepy Cronenberg was beginning. Even the red and white package of Marlboros that Torrance liked to smoke affirmed his implicit link to a Canadian film artist, evoking the red and white Maple Leaf flag of Canada. A tiny maple leaf seen pinned to the red sweater of Danny late in the film as he experienced the start of the final showdown between his parents reaffirmed the interest in the Maple Leaf flag of Canada and the film’s implicit interest in a Canadian film artist.
The two eerie and moody electronic pieces composed for the film by Wendy Carlos and Rachel Elkind and assorted strange electronic noises, which evoked the equally eerie and moody electronic ‘score’ composed by Cronenberg for CRIMES OF THE FUTURE and sounded like the equally eerie electronic score composed by Howard Shore heard that same year in the ominously twilit Cronenberg film, SCANNERS (1980), reaffirmed the implicit Cronenberg addressing intent of THE SHINING. Last but not least, the presence of paintings by Alex Colville and Norval Morrisseau in the labyrinthine hallways and rooms of the Overlook Hotel-a huge, lonely, isolated and watchful labyrinth that evoked the Discovery I spacecraft in 2001: A SPACE ODYESSEY-and the bitterly cold and snowswept winter that the events of the film took place in reaffirmed the implicit link of Torrance to a Canadian film artist. Thus, with Torrance transformed into a inarticulately snarling, snorting and animal-like ‘manotaur’-rather than Juhani Pallasmaa’s minotaur 3-and freezing to death in the equally labyrinthine maze in front of the Overlook Hotel-as trapped in the maze as his yellow VW was in the drive along the maze-like highway to the Overlook hotel at the beginning of the film-after trying to kill Danny and his wife, Wendy-her name evoking a minor character named Wendy played by Mary Swinton in THE BROOD, and played by Shelley Duvall-at the end of the film, Kubrick implied that Cronenberg was not just freezing his creativity but destroying himself by choosing to create only allegorical horror feature films after a promising indie film art beginning with CRIMES OF THE FUTURE and STEREO.
Significantly, Kubrick used a mirror reflection of Torrance to create an implicit Evil Twin of the character to emphasize both that Torrance was parting with or had parted ways with reality and that he implicitly felt that Cronenberg had also lost his way by choosing to work in the horror genre, an use of mirror reflections to indicate that characters were parting or had parted with reality that was common in the films of Rush. This was a doubly fitting evocation of the film art of Rush, as Nicholson appeared in such allegorical Rush films as TOO SOON TO LOVE (1960), HELL’S ANGELS ON WHEELS (1967) and PSYCH-OUT (1967). Significantly, the first major use of this subtle visual effect in THE SHINING was effectively combined with a zoom shot. For as Wendy brought a still sleeping Torrance his breakfast in bed one morning about half way through the film, a zoom away from Torrance slowly revealed that the audience had been watching a mirror reflection of this unexpected and loving breakfast service. Making the Torrance that was seen waking up to this breakfast service already the Dark Side ‘Johnny’ we encountered later with the axe trying to kill Wendy and Danny. Indeed, the backwards letters on his t-shirt implicitly affirmed that he was no longer rational and now on a dark path that lead inexorably to equally irrational redrum.
Unusually though, even Torrance noticed this subtle visual effect while passionately embracing and kissing the initially beautiful and naked young ghost-played by Lia Beldam-of the guest who committed suicide in room 237, a beautiful young ghost who evoked the topless actress-played by Virginia Weatherell-who tormented Alex after his Ludovico Treatment in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE. For at one point Torrance looked up and over her shoulder and saw to his horror in the mirror behind her that his irrational Dark Side was kissing a rotting old woman-played by Billie Gibson. These nods to Rush in THE SHINING affirmed that Kubrick had been following the films of Rush and approved of their warnings to New Hollywood, especially in FREEBIE IN THE BEAN. Thus, Kubrick must have been pleased with the allegorical and Ozian themed Rush artbuster, THE STUNTMAN (1980).
For the film long battle between the young, Vietnam War scarred and implicitly Hopper and Scarecrow linked stuntman, Cam-played by Steve Railsback-and the manipulative, possibly homicidal, Great Oz director, Eli Cross-played by Peter O’Toole-on the set of the twilit and allegorical Cross film, DEVIL’S SQUADRON (198?), implicitly evoked the battle between Old and New Hollywood that had been fought since the late Sixties. That this battle ended in a grudging acceptance, mutual admiration and commitment between the two men to definitely complete the allegorical Great War film within the film implicitly affirmed the hope of Rush that the equally great and pre-TZ disaster war between Old and New Hollywood was over with the commitment of both sides to the artbuster. Indeed, with the appearance of such allegorical artbusters as THE STUNTMAN, Lynch’s THE ELEPHANT MAN (1980) and Ken Russell’s ALTERED STATES (1980), the year of the release of THE SHINING was a good year for the artbuster.
Eerily, the Overlook Hotel’s fateful room 237-which evoked the less fateful Sandman Inn room 237 in FAST COMPANY-presciently pointed the way to the 23/07/1982 date of the TZ disaster in yet another ominous memory of the future, and one made more eerie by the fact that the haunted room was originally Room 217 in The Shining, but changed to 237 by Kubrick as the owners of the Timberline Lodge in Mount Hood Territory in Oregon which was used for exteriors of the Overlook were worried that guests would never want to stay in Room 217 again after experiencing THE SHINING. 4 How also eerily and presciently fitting that the opening exteriors of the Overlook Hotel were shot outside the Timberline Lodge on Mount Hood in Mount Hood Territory in northwest Oregon an hour and a half by car southeast of Portland, for Mt. Hood was approximately 3429 metres high, linking the film again to the fateful number 23. Thus, with these eerie omens of the twilit future, the shock of the TZ disaster and the dread allegorical Zone Wars that resulted were fittingly and implicitly addressed by Kubrick when he returned to the Temple Theatre.
Significantly, the year of the release of THE SHINING also saw the higher minded, Kubrick resembling and implicitly linked Lord Shingen Takeda-played by Tatsuya Nakadai-killed by an army sniper-played by Akihiko Sugizaki-and permanently replaced by his lower minded and lookalike security double-also played by Nakadai-in the allegorical Akira Kurosawa film, KAGEMUSHA aka THE SHADOW WARRIOR (1980), implying that Kurosawa felt that the higher minded Kubrick who made films like SPARTACUS had been permanently replaced by the lower minded Kubrick who made films like LOLITA by 1980, an implication affirmed by the film’s allusions to BARRY LYNDON, SPARTACUS and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. The sight and sound of the security double presiding over the annihilation of the Takeda clan also implied that Kurosawa felt that Kubrick’s lower side had led him so astray that he too was doomed to be annihilated…and forgotten. That same year, the battle between Kubrick and Landis was gleefully linked to the battle between burly and bearded Bluto and spinach powered Popeye-played by Paul L. Smith and Robin Williams, respectively-in the allegorical Robert Altman film, POPEYE (1980), which saw Duvall reappear as Popeye’s favourite goyle, the sweet and implicitly Deborah Landis linked Olive Oyl.
Surprisingly, the following year Landis again implicitly roasted Kubrick and implied that he was the one that was losing his humanity in the form of troubled lycanthrope, David Kessler-played by David Naughton-in the eerily prescient and twilit allegorical film, AN AMERICAN WEREWOLF IN LONDON (1981). For his part, Lynch clearly liked Smith’s appearance as Bluto in POPEYE, for he also used Smith to play the implicitly Kubrick linked Evildoer, the Beast Rabban, in the twilit and implicitly Cronenberg supporting moving painting, DUNE (1984). Significantly, Peter Hyams implicitly affirmed that the world of film art was trapped in a twilit new era when he teamed up with Clarke, Dullea and Rain on the twilit, computer graphic imagery (CGI) enhanced and allegorical film, 2010 (1984), based on the allegorical Clarke novel, 2010: ODYSSEY TWO (1982).
‘The first part of the journey is about to end.’
Curiously, the still photographs from 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY that accompanied the prelude that recapped the events of that wholly remarkable and stellar film for audiences evoked the still photograph of a 1921 Fourth of July party crowd at the Overlook Hotel that saw a happily smirking Torrance dressed to the nines in their midst that ended THE SHINING. This fitting evocation of the last film of Kubrick continued when 2010 began with a meeting between the implicitly Lucas linked Doctor Heywood Floyd-played by Roy Scheider-and the Hitchcock resembling and implicitly linked Soviet scientist, Doctor Dimitri Moisevitch-played by Dana Elcar-at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of radio telescopes in Socorro, New Mexico. For this meeting evoked the fateful conversation between Torrance and the Hitchcock resembling, implicitly linked and insidious ghost of Grady in the bathroom of the Gold Room THE SHINING, linking 2010 to the last film of Kubrick. A creepily ghostly evocation, indeed, for it anticipated Dr. Floyd’s meeting with the equally ghostly and multiple forms of Commander David Bowman-played again by Dullea-onboard the USSC Discovery I in orbit around Jupiter after Moisevitch helped Dr. Floyd be picked to be a part of the Soviet expedition to the gas giant to find out what happened to the American spaceship, its astronauts and HAL. Curiously, the scenes at the Floyd house before Dr. Floyd headed off to Jupiter and back on the Soviet spaceship, the Alexei Leonov, also evoked THE SHINING. For Caroline and young Christopher Floyd-played by Madolyn Smith and Taliesin Jaffe, respectively-evoked Wendy and Danny Torrance.
Curiously, Moisevitch also evoked de Sadesky of DR. STRANGELOVE, which fit well with the MADcap and Cuban Missile Crisis-style tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. over Honduras that led to tensions between the American and Soviet members onboard the Alexei Leonov during the second mission to Jupiter. Implicitly twilit tensions, for Dr. Floyd’s two American colleagues on the Alexei Leonov, computer expert Dr. S. Chandra and USSC Discovery II spaceship engineer Walter Curnow-played by Bob Balaban and John Lithgow, respectively-evoked CGI creator Edwin Catmull and eager mentor John Lasseter, while Soviet Commander Tanya Kirbuk, her co-pilot, Yuri Svetlanov and their cosmonaut colleague Maxim Brajlovsky-played by Helen Mirren, Vladimir Skomarovsky and Elya Baskin, respectively-evoked Kennedy, Landis and Spielberg. Thus, the sight of the CGI and hi-tech linked Americans helping the TZ disaster linked Soviets successfully pull off the second mission to Jupiter implied the hope of Hyams that the CGI championed by Catmull, Lasseter and Lucas would save film art and free it from any further TZ disaster-style film set disasters. Indeed, the presence of Lithgow as Curnow openly linked the film to the TZ disaster, as Lithgow played bugged out and gremlin plagued airplane passenger John Valentine in ‘Nightmare At 20,000 Feet’, the last twilit and allegorical Miller episode of TWILIGHT ZONE: THE MOVIE.
The sight and sound of the mysterious and again unseen extraterrestrials using the TMA-2 to collapse Jupiter into a new and smaller sun-Lucifer-in an explosive and CGI enhanced rebirth that ended the conflict between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. and turned the night on Earth into an uneasy twilight except for those months when the new sun was passing behind the old sun in its orbit also implicitly affirmed that Hyams was aware that a twilit and CGI enhanced new era of film art had been created by the equally explosive TZ disaster. Hyams also implied his belief that this twilit new era of CGI enhanced film art would no longer be dominated by Lucas despite his support for CGI. For the explosive destruction of Jupiter evoked the explosive destruction of the Death Moon at the end of the allegorical, CGI enhanced and implicitly Spielberg roasting Lucas film, STAR WARS EPISODE IV: A NEW HOPE (1977), and the allegorical, CGI enhanced and implicitly Spielberg roasting Richard Marquand film, STAR WARS EPISODE VI: RETURN OF THE JEDI (1983), signalling the end of the Skyrocking Lucas era and affirming the implicit interest in Lucas in 2010. And the implicit end of the film art of Spielberg, given that Brailovsky was sucked into the stargate and taken off onto a trip beyond the beyond when his EVA pod got too close to the second and larger monolith orbiting Jupiter.
However, with the film ending not with the safe arrival of the Alexei Leonov back in Earth orbit but on the primeval, monolith guarded and daylit brave new world of Europa, Hyams implied his hope that CGI enhancement would indeed one day free film art from the twilight and kick off a brave new world of daylit film art. Curiously, one of the Soviet cosmonauts cheekily resembled and was implicitly linked to Kubrick, implying the conviction of Hyams that Kubrick would eagerly embrace and advance CGI enhanced film art perhaps so as to free film art from the Twilight Zone, given the memorable special and visual effects seen in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. However, Kubrick showed no interest in CGI when he teamed up again with Harlan and Vitali on his next allegorical and CGI free docufeature artbuster, FULL METAL JACKET (1987), inspired by the allegorical Gustav Hasford novel, The Short-Timers (1979).
‘Private Joker is silly and he’s ignorant, but he’s got guts, and guts is enough!’
Indeed, Indeed, the sound of the all too fittingly Christian named Johnny Wright crooning ‘…goodbye my darling, hello Vietnam’ from the allegorical Tom T. Hall tune, ‘Hello Vietnam’ (1965), as U.S. Marine barbers used razors to quickly shear off the hair of a group of new recruits heading into basic training before being sent to Vietnam like lambs to the slaughter at the beginning of the film immediately and implicitly affirmed that Kubrick understood that the TZ disaster was a seminal event that had ended a sunlit era of Skyrocking New Hollywood film art and created a troubled, haunted and twilit new world of film art. Not surprisingly, these new recruits resembled and were implicitly linked to film artists like Kubrick, Landis, Sir Scott, Woody Allen and James Cameron, also immediately and implicitly affirming that Kubrick was aware that the fact that the TZ disaster had occurred on a simulated Vietnam War village set linked all of the film artists of the era to Landis, the TZ disaster, the Vietnam War and films about the Vietnam War-and trapped them all in the Twilight Zone.
Ominously, shearing their fleece and kitting them out in the same drab green uniforms robbed the new recruits of their individual humanity, reminding us that Torrance lost his humanity by the end of THE SHINING. This prepared us for the recruits also being transformed into their murderous Dark Sides by their ironically surnamed senior supervising drill instructor, Gunnery Sergeant Hartman-played by R. Lee Emery-during basic training. Indeed, to implicitly affirm that they were being transformed into their murderous Dark Sides like Torrance, the recruits were soon given new nicknames by Gunnery Sgt. Hartman, reminding us that Jack called himself Johnny not long before he descended into full incoherent and snarling Dark Side manotaur fury at the end of THE SHINING. One renamed recruit was the film’s VO narrator, the implicitly Landis linked Private J.T. Davis-played by Matthew Modine-who was dubbed ‘Joker’ by Gunnery Sgt. Hartman after daring to mock the senior drill instructor with a John Wayne voice while standing at attention in the barracks on the first day of training, a bit of foolish insolence that linked Joker to American film art. These nicknames affirmed the implicit link of Joker to Landis, for they evoked the nicknames given by Bluto to his fellow fraternity members of Delta House in ANIMAL HOUSE. Allusions to AN AMERICAN WEREWOLF IN LONDON and BARRY LYNDON reaffirmed the film’s implicit interest in Landis.
Significantly, Kubrick cut from implicitly film artist linked recruit to recruit before the barbers had shaved off all of their heads. This left each recruit with their heads shaved but the sides of their heads unshaved, evoking the samurai with the tops of their heads shaved and the sides left long in the samurai films of Kurosawa. Indeed, the final Marine barber looked like Kurosawa, affirming the film’s implicit interest in Kurosawa and reminding us that he had implicitly roasted Kubrick in KAGEMUSHA. Of all the new Marines, it was noticeable that only Private Leonard ‘Gomer Pyle’ Lawrence-played by Vincent D’Onofrio-had a surname with eight letters like Kurosawa and looked like a heavy set sumo wrestler, implicitly linking him to Kurosawa. Indeed, Pte. Lawrence’s unexpected facility with long range rifle sniping affirmed his implicit link to Kurosawa, reminding us that a bullet from an army sniper killed the virtuous and implicitly Kubrick linked Lord Shingen in KAGEMUSHA.
Perhaps not surprisingly, given this implicit link to Kurosawa, Pte. Lawrence was constantly verbally abused by Gunnery Sgt. Hartman over the course of the harsh basic training that transpired over most of the first half of the film, a harsh basic training that evoked the equally harsh training the gladiators received from the equally abusive ex-gladiator, Marcellus-played by Charles McGraw-at the gladiator school of Batiatus before the gladiators rose up under the inspiration of Spartacus and achieved their freedom at the beginning of SPARTACUS. As a choke hold Hartman put on Lawrence soon after meeting him evoked the infamous Force chokes of Darth Vader-played by David Prowse, who also played the bodyguard Julian in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE-in the STAR WARS Classic Trilogy, the implication was that Hartman symbolized Lucas, who co-produced the international version of KAGEMUSHA with Coppola. Thus, with Lawrence shooting Hartman dead before killing himself at the end of the first half of FULL METAL JACKET, Kubrick symbolically killed Kurosawa and Lucas with one rifle-a link to Kurosawa ironically affirmed by the single note heard on the soundtrack during the killings, which evoked the trademark lone wooden percussion note heard at times on Kurosawa soundtracks.
After implicitly taking care of Kurosawa during the first half of the film, Kubrick implicitly focussed on Landis in the form of Pte. ‘Joker’ Davis, his implicitly Gilliam linked photojournalist pal, Pte. Rafterman-played by Kevyn M. Howard-and their implicitly Disney linked friend, Payback-played by Kirk Taylor-tragicomic adventures covering the war in Vietnam for STARS AND STRIPES during the second half of FULL METAL JACKET. Indeed, the implicit link of Joker to Landis was reaffirmed by the line ‘…I’m gonna tear you a new asshole’ that Animal Mother-played by Adam Baldwin-spat at him on their first meeting in the ruins of the city of Hue, which evoked a similar line from the first allegorical and post-TZ disaster Landis film, TRADING PLACES (1983). Surprisingly, given the treatment Landis implicitly received in BARRY LYNDON, Joker survived his tour of duty in the TZ disaster haunted Vietnam War. Significantly, after she killed the implicitly Allen linked Cowboy-played by Arliss Howard-Joker was also allowed to finish off Ngoc Le’s wounded and Duval resembling Viet Cong sniper, the third in a twilit trio of Vietnamese women met in part two after the two hookers-played by Papillon Soo Soo and Leanne Hong, respectively, the second hooker openly linked to film art-that plagued the manotaur soldiers, who roared in inarticulate and despondent fury like Johnny at the end of THE SHINING when they were shot by her, in the war ravaged and labyrinthine ruins of the city of Hue at the end of the artbuster. This killing grimly allowed Joker to fulfill the ‘Born to Kill’ slogan written on the front of his helmet, and symbolically freed Landis from the Twilight Zone at a time when most people were still howling for his blood in another rare and macabre triumph for a character at the end of a Kubrick film or artbuster.
Significantly, this killing also evoked the killing of a fleeing young female prisoner-played by Virginia Leith-by the possibly Disney linked Sidney in FEAR AND DESIRE. A grimly fitting evocation, as Kubrick then allowed Joker to march off into the night with his head held high with his TZ disaster scarred but now equally liberated band of film artist brothers like they once marched on the parade square in basic training, all ironically singing the Mickey Mouse Club theme. A tragicomic sight that implied, in the end, the sarcastic and caustic conviction of Kubrick that the ‘shattered’ film artists of New Hollywood would head off to create Disney-style movie tie-in merchandise filmmercials for their Hollywood studio puppet masters once the TZ trial was over in 1987, as unquestionably and uncomplainingly as the soldiers in the film fought in Vietnam for their military puppet masters in Washington. Thus, FULL METAL JACKET ended on a familiar implicitly outraged note in the film art of Kubrick, for the ironic ending evoked the equally unquestioning ranks of legionnaires under the command of Crassus arranging themselves for battle against Spartacus and his army of rebellious gladiators and slaves at the end of SPARTACUS, the nightmarishly unquestioning obedience of Major Kong and the rest of the doomed crew of the lone unrecalled B-52 bomber of DR. STRANGELOVE and the equally unquestioning ranks of Irish raised British redcoats marching into volleys of French rifle fire in a skirmish in the Seven Years War in BARRY LYNDON. And the ants went marching one by one, indeed.
Curiously, Clarke openly alluded to the Twilight Zone in his own contribution to 1987, implying a twilit intent to the allegorical novel, 2016: odyssey three (1987). For his part, Cameron implicitly roasted Kubrick in the form of Lieutenant Hiram Coffey-played by Michael Biehn-a SEAL team leader who became as increasingly demented and MADcap for blockbuster bomb mayhem, in his twilit, CGI enhanced and allegorical Zonebuster, THE ABYSS (1989), an implication affirmed by the film’s allusions to A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DR. STRANGELOVE and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. As for Kubrick, given the implicitly and furiously dismissive and despondent ending of FULL METAL JACKET, it would have been fitting that Kubrick made the film his last word on allegorical film art in general and on the artbuster in particular. Surprisingly, however, Kubrick chose to make this statement instead in his last cinematic creation when he teamed up again with Harlan, Brian W. Cook-assistant director of THE SHINING-Les Tomkins-art director on THE SHINING and FULL METAL JACKET-and Roy Walker-production designer of THE SHINING-and returned to the Temple Theatre after his longest absence to implicitly address Luc Besson with his last allegorical and CGI free docufeature artbuster, EYES WIDE SHUT (1999), inspired by the allegorical Arthur Schnitzler novel, Traumnovelle (Rhapsody-A Dream Novel) (1926).
Indeed, Doctor William ‘Bill’ Harford and his beautiful red haired wife, Alice-played by Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman, respectively-were implicitly linked to Besson and his then wife, Milla Jovovich, throughout the film, an implication affirmed by allusions to such twilit and allegorical Besson films as LEON: THE PROFESSIONAL (1994) and THE FIFTH ELEMENT (1997). As the Harfords were almost destroyed by wealthy, powerful, amoral and implicitly film artist linked citizens of New York over the course of the film, Kubrick also implicitly warned Besson to stay away from Hollywood and stick to his irrepressibly indie film art if he valued his artistic integrity and independence.
Curiously, the film began after four short opening titles with a brief and well lit glimpse of Alice Harford from behind as she took off a Wicked black dress and revealed a beautiful young body while standing in what looked like a change room in front of four faux Grecian columns with a sliding and mirrored closet door to her sinister left that did not reflect her beautiful body and a cinema and theatre evoking red draped window with the blinds closed in front of her. Significantly, this surprising sight not only evoked the sight of legendary extraterrestrial warrioress Leeloo-played by Jovovich-doffing her duds and changing into other clothes in THE FIFTH ELEMENT, but also evoked a Kubrick photograph of an anonymous and equally naked and beautiful young female model also shot from behind being pondered by an older and implicitly salacious cartoonist named Peter Arno standing in front of her seen in the September 27, 1949 issue of LOOK magazine 5. Indeed, the magazine lying opened on the floor evoked the drawings scattered on the floor in the photograph. This linked Alice to visual art models, Graeco-Roman sculpture and to film, photographic and theatrical art, and implied that Kubrick was musing over his entire photographic and film artist life in EYES WIDE SHUT.
Kubrick implicitly reaffirmed that he was dwelling on his entire oeuvre soon after meeting Alice and Bill dressing and then leaving their painting filled apartment-most of them by Christiane and Katharine Kubrick-for a Christmas party hosted by at the larger and even more well appointed apartment of Victor Ziegler-his name evoking Vic Morrow but resembling and implicitly linked to Allen, and played by Sydney Pollack-and his wife, Illona-played by Leslie Lowe. For this creepy Christmas party evoked the Roaring Twenties New Year’s Eve party in the Gold Room at the Overlook Hotel-complete with formal bartenders-in THE SHINING. Curiously, this Christmas party also reaffirmed the film’s implicit interest in Lynch. For the pianist in the party’s jazz orchestra, Nick Nightingale-played by Todd Field-resembled Lynch and had a surname that evoked the allegorical and Julee Cruise sung Lynch and Angelo Badalamenti song, ‘The Nightingale’ (1990), in the twilit and allegorical Lynch telemoving painting series, TWIN PEAKS (1990-91), which saw Kubrick implicitly linked to Victoria Catlin’s infamous Blackie O’Reilly, madam of the notorious Canadian brothel, One-Eyed Jacks, for its name evoked an allegorical Marlon Brando film, ONE-EYED JACKS (1961), that was almost created by Kubrick. A significant evocation, setting us up for a brothel evoking encounter to come.
Curiously, sexual encounters also almost occurred at the Ziegler gathering. For Alice was hit on and almost led away for a sexual encounter by the handsome, persistent, suave and Martin Scorsese resembling and implicitly linked attendee, Sandor Szavost-played by Sky Dumont-while Bill was also hit on and almost led away for a sexual encounter by the two beautiful, young, equally persistent and Elizabeth Hurley and Julianne Moore resembling models, Nuala and Louise-played by Stewart Thorndike and Taylor Gayle, respectively. However, while tempted, both Alice and Bill remained faithful to each other, and turned down the offers. Not so Ziegler, for he was discovered to have been fooling around upstairs with a beautiful, young and showgirl evoking woman named Amanda ‘Mandy’ Curran-played by Julienne Davis-in the equally spacious and well appointed Ziegler bathroom when Dr. Harford was called away from the arms of the disappointed ladies to attend to Curran’s drug overdose.
Unfortunately, an argument between Bill and Alice the night after the Ziegler Christmas party that led both of them to question their fidelity to each other. It ended when the earnest young doctor to be called away and off into the night to attend the death of a friend named Lou Nathanson-played by Kevin Connealy. After this professional visit, Dr. Harford walked the streets of New York brooding over Alice’s fidelity. Soon he met a young prostitute who called herself Domino-played by Vinessa Shaw-whose name fittingly prepared us for a masked encounter to come. Then Dr. Harford met up again with Nightingale at the Sonata Café where he played late night piano with his small jazz band. During their talk, Nightingale affirmed his implicit link to Lynch by revealing that he lived in Seattle, reminding us that TWIN PEAKS was filmed in Washington State.
Nightingale also told Dr. Harford about a mysterious and implicitly salacious gathering at which he was going to be playing piano that night. This revelation led the good doctor to wheedle the address out of Nightingale, and then to go off and get the necessary mask and costume necessary for attendance. Significantly, Kubrick implicitly reaffirmed the personal nature of the film with the presence of the Kubrick resembling and implicitly linked costume store owner, Milich-played by Rade Serbedzija-a cynical and cranky old character with a Lolita evoking teenaged daughter-played by Leelee Sobieski-who rented Harford his mask, cloak and tux for the orgiastic partay, allowing Kubrick to roast himself one last time and to lament the power arrayed against film artists by the Hollywood studios in EYES WIDE SHUT.
Then it was off by taxi to a strange orgiastic gathering in a castillian mansion that evoked the palace commandeered by Gen. Mireau in PATHS OF GLORY, a mansion with gateposts with the round heads of chess pawns and the Hollywood cadenced and Sunset Boulevard evoking name of Somerset. Indeed, the implicit link of Somerset to Hollywood was affirmed by the red carpet in the foyer and the gold masks worn by the inner doormen of the castle, for the red carpet evoked the red carpet at film premiers and the annual Oscar ceremony and the gold masks evoked the gold face of the Oscar statuette. Indeed, the ironic password, ‘fidelio’, that Dr. Harford used to gain admittance to the orgiastic gathering evoked the password, ‘Calais’, used by French soldiers to return safely to the French lines after a night patrol that lead to the death of another person, Private Lejeune-played by Jen Dibbs-the night before the attack on Ant Hill in PATHS OF GLORY, affirming that Kubrick was coming full embittered and resigned circle in EYES WIDE SHUT.
The gathering which saw anonymous masked men making love to equally anonymous and masked young women who evoked showgirls like Curran also came across as the Dark Side ‘Sexmass’ opposite of the Light Side Christmas gathering at the Ziegler apartment that began the film. For the labyrinthine and Temple Theatre evoking interior of the castle-like mansion had the same large, spacious, high ceilinged, well lit and expensively appointed rooms as the Ziegler apartment. Indeed, the sight and sound of a blindfolded Nightingale playing an electric piano or organ at the gathering openly linked the orgiastic gathering to the Ziegler party, implicitly affirming that it was the Dark Side of the opening Light Side party. The sight and sound of Harford being led away by one tall and beautiful young woman in a large blue showgirl headdress reaffirmed that implication. For on top of reminding us that Harford had been led away by Louise and Nuala at the Ziegler party, but the beautiful young woman with the showgirl figure appeared to be Curran, the gorgeous young woman who almost OD’d in the Ziegler’s bathroom, in an implicitly open link to the Ziegler Christmas party.
Significantly, the strange masks worn by the anonymous male and female attendees evoked not only the masks that Alex and his droogs wore when they were engaged in some serious and rapacious ultraviolence in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, but also affirmed the film’s implicit interest in the Twilight Zone. For the weird masks of the male and female attendees, grotesque masks that implied that the orgy participants had become so at one with their manotaur and womanotaur Dark Sides that they had lost their humanity as well as their human faces, evoked the four equally grotesque masks that the Hitchcock resembling and implicitly linked Wilfred Harper and his wife, daughter and son, Emily, Paula and Wilfred jr., respectively-played by Milton Selzer, Virginia Gregg, Brooke Hayward and Alan Sues, respectively-were forced to don by the Good and art loving but dying family patriarch, Jason Foster-played by Robert Keith-to reveal their true Dark Side nature…forever…in the allegorical Ida Lupino telefilm, ‘The Masks’ (1964), from the fifth season of the original TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series.
Indeed, the name of Bill Harford evoked that of Wilfred Harper, while his medical profession evoked Foster’s house call making doctor, Samuel Thorne-played by Willis Bouchey-affirming the implicit interest in that twilit telefilm in EYES WIDE SHUT. In fact, ‘The Masks’ was alluded to on a number of occasions in EYES WIDE SHUT, including on the film’s soundtrack, for one of the piano pieces evoked a similar piece heard in ‘The Masks’. Significantly, the masks of Harford and implicitly that of Curran were the only ones at the gathering that were not grotesque and implicitly linked to the Dark Side of the wearer as in ‘The Masks’. Indeed, the masks of Curran and Harford were of regular female and male faces with what appeared to be whorling floral patterns covering the top halves and nothing obscuring the bottom halves, implying that they were they only attendees at the gathering that had not lost all their humanity.
In addition, one of the masked attendees wore a Lynch resembling red mask and another attendee wore a mask with a face that resembled Dennis Hopper, who played the Wicked Frank Booth in the twilit and allegorical Lynch moving painting, BLUE VELVET (1986), reaffirming the implicit additional interest in addressing Lynch in EYES WIDE SHUT. The huge blue showgirl evoking headdress on top of the Oscar gold mask of the woman who was implicitly Curran also evoked the moving paintings of Lynch, for the blue colour evoked the obsession with blue velvet in BLUE VELVET and the mysterious Blue Rose FBI investigations in the twilit and allegorical Lynch moving painting, TWIN PEAKS: FIRE WALK WITH ME (1992). Intriguingly, Kubrick did not just implicitly evoke the moving paintings of Lynch in this scene, for the brief trial that Harford endured after being exposed as a stranger who did not belong at the orgiastic gathering reaffirmed that implicit point, for it evoked the callous court martial that found the three innocent French soldiers guilty of cowardice at the end of PATHS OF GLORY.
Ominously, Curran soon died after the orgiastic gathering, like the mute girl in FEAR AND DESIRE and the Vietnamese sniper at the end of FULL METAL JACKET in a twilit trio of dead women implicitly linked to film art for Kubrick. Thus, given that Ziegler persuaded the well meaning but naïve and out of his depth Harford in a conversation that evoked a conversation that Col. Dax had with Gen. Broulard at the end of PATHS OF GLORY to give up on his quest to solve the mystery of the death of Curran and bring someone in the wealthy and powerful establishment to justice, Kubrick implicitly reaffirmed that he thought that Besson was also well meaning but naïve and out of his depth in a Hollywood establishment that was too strong to be held accountable for the deaths of Chen, Le and Morrow in the TZ disaster. The presence of Pollack reaffirmed the implicit twilit ambience of the scene, for he linked the film to the twilit and disastrous year of 1982 via his appearance as George Fields in his own allegorical film, TOOTSIE (1982). Pollack was also openly linked to the Twilight Zone by his role as the young Southern theatre director, Arthur ‘Art’ Willis, in the allegorical Buzz Kulik telefilm, ‘The Trouble with Templeton’ (1960), from the second season of the original TWILIGHT ZONE telefilm series.
Curiously, Kubrick died months before the release of EYES WIDE SHUT in November 1999. Thus, Kubrick did not attend any screenings or ponder responses to the film. Nor did he experience the allegorical and implicitly Kubrick addressing Sir Scott film, GLADIATOR (2000), which sympathetically and implicitly linked the inability before his death of the famed and implicitly Kubrick linked Roman general turned gladiator, ‘Mad’ Maximus Decimus Meridius-played by Russell Crowe-to lead Rome and its Empire into a daylit new era free of the Evil and corruption of the implicitly Landis linked Emperor Commodus-played by Joaquin Phoenix-to the inability of Kubrick before his death to lead Hollywood and its film art, film artists and audiences into a daylit new era of allegorical and CGI enhanced artbusters free of Landis and the TZ disaster, an implication affirmed by the film’s allusions to AN AMERICAN WEREWOLF IN LONDON, PATHS OF GLORY, SPARTACUS and THE SHINING. For his part, Spielberg completed Kubrick’s unfinished and CGI enhanced allegorical film, A.I. (2001), which implicitly roasted Lynch in the form of odd Mecha boy David, played by Joel H. Osment-an implication that Lynch implicitly refuted on one level in his allegorical, CGI free and implicitly Kubrick addressing moving painting, MULHOLLAND DRIVE (2001). And so, unable to respond to A. I., GLADIATOR or MULHOLLAND DRIVE, the implicit sentiments expressed in EYES WIDE SHUT were the final sad and cynical thoughts on film art from a worn out and world weary Kubrick that summed up his belief that too small, powerless, helpless and hapless to rise up against and defeat the blockbuster loot lusting Hollywood establishment and its obsession with CGI enhanced and artbuster mocking blockbuster beasts were people in general and film artists in particular-the Brotherhood and Sisterhood of the Screen-and thus doomed always were they to be pawns of glory.
- Nathan Abrams writes about the implicit influence of MAD magazine on Kubrick in the third essay, ‘An Alternative New York Jewish Intellectual: Stanley Kubrick’s cultural critique’ (pp. 62-79), of the Richard Daniels, Peter Kramer and Tatjana Ljujic edited essay collection, Stanley Kubrick: new perspectives.
- Peter Kramer heralds the arrival of Kubrick’s new artbuster direction on page 61 at the end of the second essay, ‘“Complete Total Final Annihilating Artistic Control”: Stanley Kubrick and post-war Hollywood’ (pp.48-61), in Stanley Kubrick: new perspectives.
- The fittingly surnamed Juhani Pallasmaa writes about Torrance transforming into a minotaur ‘Monster In The Maze: the architecture of THE SHINING’ (pp. 198-207), in the fifteenth essay on the film art of Kubrick to be found in the Maja Keppler and Hans-Peter Reichmann edited Stanley Kubrick-catalogue accompanying the Stanley Kubrick exhibition.
- According to Ursula Von Keitz, in note 22 on p. 197 of ‘The Shining-Frozen Material: Stanley Kubrick’s adaptation of Stephen King’s novel’ (pp. 184-197), the sixteenth essay in Stanley Kubrick-catalogue accompanying the Stanley Kubrick exhibition.
- This cheeky photograph on p. 18 kicks off ‘Kubrick’s Kaleidoscope: early photographs 1945-1950’ by Alexandra Von Stosch and Rainer Crone (pp. 18-27) in Stanley Kubrick-catalogue accompanying the Stanley Kubrick exhibition.
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